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The endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination to generate mice deficient in ET-1. These ET-1-/- homozygous mice die of respiratory failure at birth and have morphological abnormalities of the pharyngeal-arch-derived craniofacial tissues and organs. ET-1+/- heterozygous mice, which produce lower levels(More)
A change of mitochondrial membrane permeability is essential for apoptosis, leading to translocation of apoptogenic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor into the cytoplasm. We recently showed that the Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate cytochrome c release and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi) by directly modulating the activity of the(More)
The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori is an immunogenic antigen of variable size and unknown function that has been associated with increased virulence as well as two mutually exclusive diseases, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The 3' region of the cagA gene contains repeated sequences. To determine whether there are structural changes in the 3'(More)
The Malachite Green method for determination of inorganic phosphate (Pi) (Itaya K. & Ui, M. (1966) Clin. Chim. Acta 14, 361-366) was modified to measure Pi in the range of 0.2-15 nmol per ml of ATPase reaction mixture. An ATPase reaction mixture is quenched with an equal volume of 0.6 M PCA; the supernatant after centrifugation is mixed with an equal volume(More)
A complete suppression of muscle tone in the postural muscles and a reduction of muscle tone in the respiratory related musculature occur in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Previous studies have emphasized the role of glycine in generating these changes. Because the activity of norepinephrine- and serotonin-containing neurons is known to decrease in REM(More)
Increase of extracellular dopamine in primate prefrontal cortex during a working memory task. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2795-2798, 1997. The dopamine innervation of the prefrontal cortex is involved importantly in cognitive processes, such as tested in working memory tasks. However, there have been no studies directly investigating prefrontal dopamine levels in(More)
Among the high-throughput, comprehensive technological methods used to analyze transcript expression levels, array-based hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) are currently the most common approaches. To compare the quantitative accuracy of oligonucleotide array and SAGE, both methods were carried out on identical RNA specimens(More)
The transport of solutes between blood and brain is regulated by a specific barrier. Capillary endothelial cells of brain are known to mediate barrier function and facilitate transport. Here we report that specific cells surrounding arterioles, known as Mato's fluorescent granular perithelial (FGP) cells or perivascular microglial cells, contribute to the(More)
ANR, an analogue of Escherichia coli FNR, has been shown to be necessary for denitrification, arginine deiminase activity and cyanide production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Another CRP/FNR-related regulator, DNR, has also been shown to be necessary for denitrification. In this study, we have found that the transcription of the dnr gene is under the control(More)
A gene, designated dnr, was identified in the vicinity of the structural genes for nitrite reductase (nirS) and nitric oxide reductase (norCB), and the gene for activation of the reductases (nirQ) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It encodes a protein of 227 amino acids homologous with the CRP/FNR-family transcriptional regulators. Promoter activities for nirS,(More)