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Osmoregulatory actions of growth hormone (GH) and its mode of action in salmonids are reviewed. We present evidence suggesting that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mediates some of the actions of GH on seawater acclimation. Plasma concentration and turnover of GH rise following exposure to seawater. Exogenous GH (in vivo) increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase(More)
The ontogeny of pituitary cell-types, hypothalamic neurons and their fibers, was studied immunocytochemically during development of chum salmon. Five weeks after fertilization (eyed stage embryos), 5 cell-types were detected in the adenohypophysial (AHP) anlage; prolactin (PRL)-, growth hormone (GH)-, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-, melanotropin (α-MSH)-, and(More)
We have identified ghrelin and cDNA encoding precursor protein from the stomach of a euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The sequence of 20-amino acid tilapia ghrelin is GSSFLSPSQKPQNKVKSSRI. The third serine residue was modified by n-decanoic acid. The carboxyl-terminal end of the peptide possessed an amide structure. RT-PCR analysis revealed high(More)
Two PRL-releasing peptides (PrRP20 and PrRP31) were recently identified from mammalian hypothalamus by an orphan receptor strategy, and a C-terminal RF (arginyl-phenylalamyl-) amide peptide (RFa), structurally related to mammalian PrRP, was also identified from the brain of the Japanese crucian carp (C-RFa) by an intestine-contracting assay. However, to(More)
To clarify the role of growth hormone (GH) in salmonids during seawater (SW) adaptation, we examined GH kinetics in chronically cannulated rainbow trout, weighing about 1 kg. When trout were transferred from fresh water (FW) to 75% SW, plasma chloride concentration was normalized within 1 week. Plasma GH concentration increased significantly 2 days after(More)
Plasma somatolactin (SL) concentrations were examined in chum salmon in relation to gonadal maturation; immature salmon in the Bering Sea at various stages of maturation, and mature salmon during upstream migration caught at the ocean, bay and river. Plasma SL concentrations as well as plasma prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) levels in the immature(More)
Thyroid hormone concentrations in unfertilized eggs of 26 species of various freshwater, marine and diadromous teleosts were examined, together with changes in their concentrations during egg development in some species. Significant quantities of both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were found in eggs of all species examined. Mean T4 and T3(More)
Recently, ghrelin (Ghr), a new peptide which specifically stimulates growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary, was identified in the rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been shown to stimulate GH release by acting through a growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor in the rat. The present study describes the in vitro effect of rat Ghr on the release(More)
This study assessed the endocrine and ionoregulatory responses by tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to disturbances of hydromineral balance during confinement and handling. In fresh water (FW), confinement and handling for 0.5, 1, 2 and 6h produced elevations in plasma cortisol and glucose; a reduction in plasma osmolality was observed at 6h. Elevations in(More)
Morphological changes in the chloride cells (CCs) in the yolk-sac membrane of euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos and larvae were examined in relation to environmental salinity. Half of a brood of embryos spawned in fresh water (FW) were transferred directly to seawater (SW) 1 day before hatching; the other half was maintained in FW. The(More)