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Diabetes, a disease in which the body does not produce or use insulin properly, is a serious global health problem. Gut polypeptides secreted in response to food intake, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are potent incretin hormones that enhance the glucose-dependent secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. Free fatty acids (FFAs) provide an(More)
Carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1.1) from human liver were purified using Q-Sepharose, Sephadex G-150, isoelectrofocusing and Con A-Sepharose. The calculated molecular mass of the pI 5.3 enzyme was 120 kDa and 61 kDa from the results of Sephadex G-150 gel filtration and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), respectively, suggesting that this enzyme is a(More)
Mature B cells co-express on their cell surface two classes of antigen receptor, the IgM and IgD immunoglobulins. The structural and functional differences between the two receptor classes are poorly understood. Recently two proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) have been described that are preferentially associated with membrane IgD but only weakly(More)
The ingestion of fat induces secretion of the gut peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK); however, the mechanism responsible for lipid-induced CCK release remains unknown. Recently, a group of free fatty acid (FFA) receptors, which includes the long-chain FFA receptors GPR120 and GPR40, has been identified. In this study, we examined whether these FFA(More)
The platelet-activating factor PAF (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a potent lipid first messenger active in general cell activation, fertilization, inflammatory and allergic reactions, asthma, HIV pathogenesis, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis. There is substantial evidence that PAF is involved in intracellular signalling, but the pathways(More)
To determine differential tissue antigens in the same section immunocytochemically using the electron microscope, the neurohypophysis was examined following the application of a freeze-drying tissue preparation and staining with the protein A-colloidal gold-antibody complex method (Hisano S, Adachi T, Daikoku S: J Histochem Cytochem 32:705, 1984). At the(More)
Gastrectomized rats develop anemia and osteopenia, and ingestion of fructooligosaccharides leads to an increase in iron absorption and promotes recovery from anemia in iron-deficient rats. Laparotomized (sham-operated control) rats and totally gastrectomized (Billoth II) rats, in groups of 14 each, were fed a control diet without fructooligosaccharides or a(More)
The IgM and IgD classes of antigen receptor can perform different functions on B cells. However, so far no class-specific components communicating with the cytoplasm have been found in the two antigen receptors. We have employed a new biotinylation protocol to search for intracellular membrane Ig-associated proteins. Here we describe two proteins of 29 and(More)
Bacillus brevis 47 secretes vast amounts of proteins derived from both middle wall protein (MWP) and outer wall protein into the medium. The 5' region of the cell wall protein gene operon was cloned into Bacillus subtilis and subsequently into B. brevis 47. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence analysis, an open reading frame coding for MWP was identified(More)
The immunoglobulin kappa locus (Ig kappa) is active only in the B-lymphocyte cell lineage. By exon-trapping we found a gene situated downstream from the murine Ig kappa locus. This gene encodes a protein with 53% sequence identity to the ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A (RPI-A) of Escherichia coli and is therefore likely to be the murine homologue (mRPI) of(More)