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Ghrelin, a novel peptide isolated from stomach tissue of rats and humans, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to its secretion from the stomach, ghrelin is also expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, intestine, kidney, placenta, and pancreas. GHS-R mRNA, on the other hand, is(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is produced in neurones in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is implicated in the neural control of feeding behaviour. Previously, we have reported that GALP immunoreactive fibres were in direct contact with orexin/hypocretin immunoreactive neurones in the rat lateral hypothalamus using double-immunofluorescence. Centrally(More)
The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior, energy metabolism and reproduction. A novel peptide containing 60 amino acid peptide and a non-amidated C-terminus is produced in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and has been named galanin-like peptide (GALP) on the basis of a portion of this peptide being homologous with(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a novel peptide which is isolated from the porcine hypothalamus. GALP-containing neurons are present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), being particularly densely concentrated in medial posterior regions. To observe the ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of GALP-containing neurons in the ARC, light and immunoelectron(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a novel orexigenic neuropeptide that is recently isolated from the porcine hypothalamus. GALP-containing neurons predominantly locate in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The expression of GALP mRNA within the ARC is increased after the administration of leptin. GALP-containing neurons express leptin receptor and contain(More)
Glial cells release neurotrophic factors that maintain neurons functionally. When rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12) were cultivated with the conditioned medium of human astrocytoma cells (1321N1) incubated with the new diterpenoids, scabronines A and G, isolated from Sarcodon scabrosus, they changed their morphology and there was neurite outgrowth. The(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a major role in the regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion based on its binding to the CCK-A receptor (CCK-AR). While CCK-AR is known to be expressed in rat islet B cells, the localization of CCK-AR in rat pancreatic A and D cells remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the localization of CCK-AR in(More)
In mammals including human, it is generally accepted that growth hormone (GH) can regulate its own secretion through an autofeedback mechanism in which somatostatin (SRIF) may be involved. To explore a physiological role of SRIF-mediated GH autoregulation, the effect of exogenous human GH administration on plasma rat GH response to [D-Ala2, Nle27]-human(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Helicobactor pylori mostly colonizes the gastric mucus that contains salivary antibodies. We studied the role of saliva in the induction and maintenance of gastric immunity conferred by oral vaccination against H. pylori. METHODS C57BL/6 mice underwent a sialoadenectomy before and after intragastric immunization using whole-cell(More)
We have previously reported that pretreatment with carrageenan (CAR) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in and lethality for mice. Whole blood cultured in vitro was used to show that CAR pretreatment results in about a 200-fold increase in LPS-induced TNF-alpha production. CAR by itself did not(More)