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Ghrelin, a novel peptide isolated from stomach tissue of rats and humans, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to its secretion from the stomach, ghrelin is also expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, intestine, kidney, placenta, and pancreas. GHS-R mRNA, on the other hand, is(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a novel orexigenic neuropeptide that is recently isolated from the porcine hypothalamus. GALP-containing neurons predominantly locate in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The expression of GALP mRNA within the ARC is increased after the administration of leptin. GALP-containing neurons express leptin receptor and contain(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a novel peptide which is isolated from the porcine hypothalamus. GALP-containing neurons are present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), being particularly densely concentrated in medial posterior regions. To observe the ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of GALP-containing neurons in the ARC, light and immunoelectron(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a major role in the regulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion based on its binding to the CCK-A receptor (CCK-AR). While CCK-AR is known to be expressed in rat islet B cells, the localization of CCK-AR in rat pancreatic A and D cells remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the localization of CCK-AR in(More)
The hypothalamus plays an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior, energy metabolism and reproduction. A novel peptide containing 60 amino acid peptide and a non-amidated C-terminus is produced in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and has been named galanin-like peptide (GALP) on the basis of a portion of this peptide being homologous with(More)
The distribution of orexin A immunoreactivity and the synaptic relationships of orexin A-positive neurons in the rat area postrema were studied using both light and electron microscopy techniques. At the light microscope level, numerous orexin A-like immunoreactive fibers were found within the area postrema. Using electron microscopy, immunoreactivity(More)
UNLABELLED Clonidine, an alpha(2) agonist, reduces the anesthetic requirement and attenuates harmful hemodynamic responses to noxious stimuli. We examined the responsible sites of action in the central nervous system for the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) and MAC blocking adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) reducing effects of systemically(More)
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