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Humans and animals walk adaptively in diverse situations by skillfully manipulating their complicated and redundant musculoskeletal systems. From an analysis of measured electromyographic (EMG) data, it appears that despite complicated spatiotemporal properties, muscle activation patterns can be explained by a low dimensional spatiotemporal structure. More(More)
It is important to understand the mechanism of human standing-up motion to improve the declined physical ability of the elderly people. This study employs the concept of muscle synergies (modular structure of coordinative muscle activation) to understand how humans coordinate their muscles to achieve the standing-up motion. Neuro-musculoskeletal model was(More)
The central pattern generators (CPGs) in the spinal cord strongly contribute to locomotor behavior. To achieve adaptive locomotion, locomotor rhythm generated by the CPGs is suggested to be functionally modulated by phase resetting based on sensory afferent or perturbations. Although phase resetting has been investigated during fictive locomotion in cats,(More)
Quadrupeds vary their gaits in accordance with their locomotion speed. Such gait transitions exhibit hysteresis. However, the underlying mechanism for this hysteresis remains largely unclear. It has been suggested that gaits correspond to attractors in their dynamics and that gait transitions are non-equilibrium phase transitions that are accompanied by a(More)
Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is essential for safe, smooth locomotion. Physiological studies regarding muscle synergy have shown that the combination of a small number of basic patterns produces the large part of muscle activities during locomotion and the addition of another pattern explains muscle activities for obstacle avoidance. Furthermore,(More)
Step length, cadence and joint flexion all increase in response to increases in gradient and walking speed. However, the tuning strategy leading to these changes has not been elucidated. One characteristic of joint variation that occurs during walking is the close relationship among the joints. This property reduces the number of degrees of freedom and(More)
In this paper, we propose and implement a formation control algorithm for a mobile robot group. Although obstacle avoidance is a highly essential function, it is not compatible with maintaining a formation. In previous studies, robots often switched their motion algorithms. However, there no concrete criteria exists for such decisions. In this paper, we(More)
In recent research, the morphological effect is widely discussed from walking to the Internet, and its mechanism for generating the functionality has been discovered. In this paper, a module that employs the structural effect for controlling behavior is constructed using coupled nonuniform van der Pol oscillators. We first examine the synchrony of two types(More)