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Alterations of the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Although abnormal synchronous activity is observed in the PFC of these patients, little is known about the role of serotonin (5-HT) in cortical synchrony. We found that 5-HT, released by electrical stimulation(More)
The neocortex consists of histochemically, connectionally, and functionally distinguishable areas. Recently, molecular biological techniques have enabled us to find rare types of genes expressed in specific neocortical areas. We previously reported occ1 gene as preferentially expressed in the primary visual cortex (V1), using the differential display(More)
Cortical patterns of gene expression provide a new approach to long standing issues of lamination, and area identity and formation. In this review, we summarize recent findings where molecular biological techniques have revealed a small number of area-specific genes in the nonhuman primate cortex. One of these (occ1) is strongly expressed in primary visual(More)
We examined the expression patterns of 4 layer-specific genes in monkey and mouse cortices by fluorescence double in situ hybridization. Based on their coexpression profiles, we were able to distinguish several subpopulations of deep layer neurons. One group was characterized by the expression of ER81 and the lack of Nurr1 mRNAs and mainly localized to(More)
To understand global and local design principles of mammalian cerebral cortical networks, we applied network-theoretical approaches to connectivity data from macaque and cat cortical networks. We first confirmed "small-world" properties and searched for the evidence of hierarchical modularity. To elucidate their local design principles, we then compared(More)
It is generally accepted that the direct connection from the motor cortex to spinal motor neurons is responsible for dexterous hand movements in primates. However, the role of the 'phylogenetically older' indirect pathways from the motor cortex to motor neurons, mediated by spinal interneurons, remains elusive. Here we used a novel double-infection(More)
The mapping of eye-specific, geniculocortical inputs to primary visual cortex (V1) is highly sensitive to the balance of correlated activity between the two eyes during a restricted postnatal critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. This critical period is likely to have amplified expression of genes and proteins that mediate synaptic plasticity.(More)
The neocortex, which is characteristic of mammals, has evolved to play important roles in cognitive and perceptual functions. The localization of different functions in different regions of the neocortex was well established within the last century. Studies on the formation of the neocortex have advanced at the molecular level, thus clarifying the(More)
Although axon guidance molecules play critical roles in neural circuit formation during development, their roles in the adult circuit are not well understood. In this study we examined the expression patterns of Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), a member of the semaphorin family, in the mature neocortices of monkeys and mice by in situ hybridization (ISH). We found(More)