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In this study, our goal was to evaluate the role of starch debranching enzymes in the determination of the structure of amylopectin. We screened mutant populations of Arabidopsis for plants with alterations in the structure of leaf starch by using iodine staining. The leaves of two mutant lines stained reddish brown, whereas wild-type leaves stained(More)
Although ubiquitin is thought to be important for the autophagic sequestration of invading bacteria (also called xenophagy), its precise role remains largely enigmatic. Here we determined how ubiquitin is involved in this process. After invasion, ubiquitin is conjugated to host cellular proteins in endosomes that contain Salmonella or transfection(More)
Gingival fibroblasts produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from periodontopathic bacteria. Recently it has become evident that the human homologue of Drosophila Toll can transduce intracellular signaling by LPS stimulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified in myeloid cells; however, their role in nonmyeloid(More)
The chemical structure of lipid A isolated from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide was elucidated by compositional analysis, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydrophilic backbone of free lipid A was found to consisted of beta(1,6)-linked D-glucosamine disaccharide 1-phosphate. (R)-3-Hydroxy-15-methylhexadecanoic(More)
We previously reported the existence of two different kinds of fimbriae expressed by Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277. In this study, we isolated and characterized a secondary fimbrial protein from strain FPG41, a fimA-inactivated mutant of P. gingivalis 381. FPG41 was constructed by a homologous recombination technique using a mobilizable suicide(More)
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