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We conducted business cycle accounting (BCA) using the method developed by Chari, Kehoe, and McGrattan (2002a) on data from the 1980s-1990s in Japan and from the interwar period in Japan and the United States. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we find that labor wedges may have been a major contributor to the decade-long recession in the(More)
In this study, we collected follicular fluid, granulosa cells, and cumulus cells from antral follicles at specific time intervals following equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment of gilts. The treatment with eCG increased the production of estrogen coordinately with up-regulated proliferation of granulosa and(More)
During ovulation, granulosa cells and cumulus cells synthesize and secrete a wide variety of factors including members of the IL cytokine family via the process of exocytosis. Exocytosis is controlled by the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor complex consisting of proteins residing in the vesicle membrane and the(More)
The present study aimed to investigate progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression in cumulus cells and their roles during meiotic resumption of porcine oocytes. The amount of PR-A or PR-B mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR using primer sets for the PR-B region or the PR-A/B common region. The level of PR-B mRNA in cumulus cells was up-regulated by FSH and LH(More)
The toll-like receptor (TLR) system is expressed in cumulus cells of ovulated cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and is activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, the endogenous ligand(s) for the TLRs and the physiological role(s) in ovulated COCs remain to be defined. Based on reports that hyaluronan fragments can activate TLR2 and TLR4 in(More)
PROBLEM The aim of this study was to find immune-related genes expressed in cumulus cells of ovulated cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and to clear the functional roles during fertilization process. METHOD OF STUDY Ovulated COCs were collected from oviduct 16 hr after the hCG injections followed by eCG priming. The cumulus cells were used for RT-PCR or(More)
It has been reported that LH receptor (LHR) mRNA is not detected in cumulus cells of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) just after collection from small antral follicles. The present study showed that the formation of LHR in cumulus cells was up-regulated by the cultivation with 20 ng/ml FSH. When the newly synthesized receptors were stimulated by 1.0(More)
To investigate the role of factors secreted by cumulus cells during meiotic resumption of porcine oocytes, 1, 5, 10, or 20 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in each well of a culture dish containing 300 microl of maturation medium for 20 h. There was a significant positive correlation between the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the(More)
During in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increases both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and the expression levels of EGF-like factors. The ligands act on cumulus cells by the autocrine system due to their specific receptors, EP2, EP4, or EGF receptor. When each pathway is suppressed by(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial infections of the genital tract are one of the most serious causes of infertility in males. In some human patients with poor semen quality, leukocytospermia has been observed. Because leukocytes express the bacterial-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsive Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling cascade and secrete tumor necrosis factor-α,(More)