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Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong(More)
Reproductive parasitism among males is prevalent in fishes. Typically, small ripe males parasitize the reproductive effort of large bourgeois males by using various behavioural tactics. We examined the size-dependent advantages of parasitic behavioural tactics in a shell-brooding cichlid fish of Lake Tanganyika with three male types (large bourgeois males(More)
Geographical colour variation and distribution of 48 common cichlid fish species were studied at 20 sites along an 85 km shoreline at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Sixteen species had two or more colour morphs and 11 species showed a limited distribution in the study area. They were all rock-dwellers. Distributional borders of the color(More)
Fishes usually do not eat while brooding offspring in their mouths. In two epilithic algal eaters Tropheus duboisi and T. moorii in Lake Tanganyika, however, mouthbrooding females exhibited feeding actions. In T. duboisi, the feeding rate of mouthbrooding females was 80 percent of that of males and non brooding females irrespective of the developmental(More)
Parental-care patterns and mating systems of three goby-like cichlids in Lake Tanganyika were investigated. In Tanganicodus irsacae females mouthbrooded eggs and small young for about two weeks and then males took over the role for about one week. Field observations of tagged fish suggest that this species is monogamous: a male's home range largely(More)
Cichlid fishes of the east African Great Lakes represent a paradigm of adaptive radiation. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of cichlids including pan-African and west African species by using insertion patterns of short interspersed elements (SINEs) at orthologous loci. The monophyly of the east African cichlids was consistently supported by seven(More)
Question: Can intrasexual selection on male size and natural selection on female size in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus explain the greatest male/female sexual size dimorphism (SSD) reported to date among animals? Mathematical methods: (1) Mortality model to predict male and female body sizes. (2) Gain rate maximization and (3) combined(More)
Partial sequences of the cytochrome b gene (402 bp) in mtDNA were determined for brackishwater gobiid fishes, genus Tridentiger, collected from geographically distant locations in the Japanese Archipelago, and their interspecific and geographic variations were analyzed and compared. Contrary to the results of a previous allozyme analysis which revealed the(More)
When males are the larger sex, a positive allometric relationship between male and female sizes is often found across populations of a single species (i.e. Rensch’s rule). This pattern is typically explained by a sexual selection pressure on males. Here, we report that the allometric relationship was negative across populations of a shell-brooding cichlid(More)
Despite the wide prevalence of alternative reproductive tactics, little attention has been paid to why reproductively parasitic males are so small. In this study, we tackled this issue in a shell-brooding fish Lamprologus callipterus. Sneaky ‘dwarf males’ of this fish remain much smaller than bourgeois conspecifics throughout their life and employ a unique(More)