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Like mammalian leucocytes, white blood cells of fish are able to kill altered (e.g. virus-infected) and foreign (allogeneic or xenogeneic) cells. The existence of natural killer (NK)-like and specific cytotoxic cells in fish was first shown using allogeneic and xenogeneic effector/target cell systems. In addition to in vivo and ex vivo studies, very(More)
A simple and rapid method for analysis of fish blood cells is presented. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood was diluted 200 times with Hanks' solution containing 1 microg/ml of DiOC6(3) which is a fluorescent, lipophilic dye. After staining for 10 min, the blood cells were measured by a flow cytometer (FACS). Several blood cell populations were identified by(More)
In the adaptive immune system of mammals, naive helper T (Th) cells differentiate into Th1 or Th2 cells. The T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) is a member of a family of T-box transcription factors that regulates the expression of IFN-gamma and plays a crucial role in Th1 cell differentiation and cell-mediated immunity. We cloned and sequenced T-bet cDNA(More)
GATA3, a transcriptional activator, plays a critical role in the development of T-cells and differentiation to T helper type 2 cells. To date, no information is available on the role of GATA3 in the teleost immune system. We identified full-length cDNA and alternatively spliced variants of ginbuna crucian carp GATA3 (gbGATA3). The gbGATA3 gene is(More)
In rainbow trout there is only one dominant classical MHC class I locus, Onmy-UBA, for which four very different allelic lineages have been described. The purpose of the present study was to determine if Onmy-UBA polymorphism could be used for strain characterisation. This was performed by lineage-specific PCR investigation of 30 fish, each of the Nikko and(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was discovered as the first cytokine that inhibited the random migration of macrophages. Recently, MIF has been reported to be involved in embryonic development in higher vertebrates. In fish, however, nothing is known about the function of MIF at early life stages, although immunological functions of MIF have(More)
Interleukins 4 and 13 (IL-4 and IL-13) are related cytokines important for Th2 immune responses and encoded by adjacent genes on human chromosome 5. Efforts were made previously to detect these genes in fish, but research was hampered by a lack of sequence conservation. A Tetraodon nigrovirides (green spotted pufferfish) gene was annotated as IL-4 by Li et(More)
We report the in vivo role of specific cytotoxic cells in protecting fish from acute viral infections. Specifically, we found that (1) there is an inverse relationship between cytotoxic activities and viral load and (2) adoptive transfer of immune leukocytes prevented viral infection. Crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV), which has a virulence(More)
We have isolated and characterized cDNAs and genes for pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, (Fugu) orthologues of mammalian interleukin (IL)-12 subunits (IL-12 p35 and IL-12 p40). The deduced amino acid sequences of the Fugu IL-12 subunits showed homology with mammalian IL-12 subunits (p35: 50.4-58.0% similarity; p40: 51.2-55.4% similarity). Phylogenetic analysis(More)
Diseases in fish are serious problems for the development of aquaculture. The outbreak of fish disease is largely dependent on environmental and endogenous factors resulting in opportunistic infection. Recent studies, particularly on stress response, have revealed that bidirectional communication between the endocrine and immune systems via hormones and(More)