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Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in seed development and responses to various environmental stresses. Oxidation of abscisic aldehyde is the last step of ABA biosynthesis and is catalysed by aldehyde oxidase (EC We have reported the occurrence of three isoforms of aldehyde oxidase, AOalpha, AObeta and AOgamma, in Arabidopsis thaliana(More)
This article represents the first evidence that the renal secretion of the commonly used drug, digoxin, is mediated by P-glycoprotein. In this study, it was demonstrated that digoxin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein, and the mechanism of a clinically important drug interaction, such as digoxin-quinidine, was elucidated. Human P-glycoprotein was expressed on(More)
We expressed human MDR1 cDNA isolated from the human adrenal gland in porcine LLC-PK1 cells. A highly polarized epithelium formed by LLC-GA5-COL300 cells that expressed human P-glycoprotein specifically on the apical surface showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype and had 8.3-, 3.4-, and 6.5-fold higher net basal to apical transport of 3H-labeled cortisol,(More)
Cyclosporin A, a cyclic undecapeptide, and FK506 are efficient immunosuppressive agents. They also attract attention as effective P-glycoprotein modulators that inhibit P-glycoprotein from binding to anticancer drugs and overcome multidrug resistance. Cyclosporin A itself interacts with a common binding site of P-glycoprotein to which Vinca alkaloids and(More)
The genes psbB, psbH, petB and petD for the components in photosystem II and the cytochrome b6/f complex are clustered and co-transcribed in liverwort Marchantia polymorpha chloroplasts. On the opposite DNA strand in the spacer region between the genes psbB and psbH, we deduced an open reading frame consisting of 43 sense codons, and designated it as the(More)
A new developmental gene, fruA, of Myxococcus xanthus was cloned using a one-step cloning vector, TnV. DNA sequencing of the wild-type allele of the fruA gene indicated that the fruA gene encodes a protein of 229 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 24672. The deduced amino acid sequence of FruA protein showed similarity to those of(More)
Using degenerate primers designed by deduced amino acid sequences of known aldehyde oxidases (AO) from maize and bovine, two independent cDNA fragments were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The two corresponding full-length cDNAs (atAO-1 and atAO-2; 4,484 and 4,228 bp long, respectively) were cloned by screening the(More)
A gene encoding embryonic chicken pepsinogen (ECPg), a zymogen of the digestive enzyme pepsin, is expressed specifically in epithelial cells of glands of embryonic stage proventriculus (glandular stomach) under the influence of mesenchyme. We found four GATA and one Sox binding motifs in 1.1 kb of the 5' flanking region of the ECPg gene which are essential(More)
Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), a member of the ABC superfamily transporters, functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump that extrudes cytotoxic drugs from the cells. Although glutathione has been considered to play an important role in the function of MRP, there is no convincing evidence that glutathione directly interacts with MRP. Here we(More)
Polyclonal antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides or recombinant polypeptides encoded by Arabidopsis atAO-1 and atAO-2 cDNAs, which have sequences similar to maize and animal aldehyde oxidase (AO) cDNAs. Anti-atAO-1 antibodies recognized AOalpha and AObeta among the three isoforms, AOalpha, AObeta, and AOgamma, detected in Arabidopsis seedlings(More)