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The cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) functions in a broad array of biological and pathophysiological processes. We found that salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) was abundantly expressed in neurons and suppressed CREB-mediated gene expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD induced the degradation of SIK2 protein concomitantly with the(More)
To develop an experimental model of thromboembolic stroke without intracranial surgery, an autologous blood clot was delivered to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the internal carotid artery in cynomolgus monkeys. Male cynomolgus monkeys, in which a chronic catheter had been earlier implanted in the left internal carotid artery, were used. The clot was(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Arachidonic acid that is released following cerebral ischemia can be metabolized to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). 20-HETE is a potent vasoconstrictor that may contribute to ischemic injury. This study examined the effects of blockading the synthesis of 20-HETE with TS-011 on infarct size after transient occlusion of the(More)
Salusin-alpha and salusin-beta are multifunctional bioactive peptides originally identified using bioinformatics analyses. Salusin-beta has been shown to exert potent hypotensive, bradycardic, and pro-atherosclerotic effects. The form in which it exists in biological fluids remains undetermined due to technical difficulties originating from its unexpected(More)
We determined whether up to 24 h of ischemia could induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain of nonhuman primates. Randomized animals were subjected to either a 2 h ischemia (group II; n=3) or a 24 h ischemia (group III; n=3). Three animals in group I served as controls. In group III, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral(More)
We studied the efficacy of preischemic and postischemic systemic treatment with a new calcium antagonist nilvadipine in a permanent focal cerebral ischemia model of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats that underwent microsurgical middle cerebral artery occlusion were blindly assigned to a single intraperitoneal injection of nilvadipine (0.32 mg/kg) or the(More)
The effects of nilvadipine, a dihydropyridine type calcium channel blocker, on cerebral infarction induced by focal brain ischemia was studied in rats. The area of infarction was measured 24 hr after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Nilvadipine, given immediately after MCA(More)
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