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The cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) functions in a broad array of biological and pathophysiological processes. We found that salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) was abundantly expressed in neurons and suppressed CREB-mediated gene expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD induced the degradation of SIK2 protein concomitantly with the(More)
Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the traditional herb ginseng, has been reported to show a neuroprotective effect in a rodent ischemic model. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of GRb1 on early and delayed brain injuries in a non-human primate thromboembolic stroke model. Thromboembolic stroke was induced by occlusion of the(More)
cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) promotes melanogenesis by inducing microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf ) gene expression. We report here that the CREB-specific coactivator TORC and its repressor, salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2), are fundamental determinants of the melanogenic program in mice. Exposure of B16 melanoma cells to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Arachidonic acid that is released following cerebral ischemia can be metabolized to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). 20-HETE is a potent vasoconstrictor that may contribute to ischemic injury. This study examined the effects of blockading the synthesis of 20-HETE with TS-011 on infarct size after transient occlusion of the(More)
Salusin-alpha and salusin-beta are multifunctional bioactive peptides originally identified using bioinformatics analyses. Salusin-beta has been shown to exert potent hypotensive, bradycardic, and pro-atherosclerotic effects. The form in which it exists in biological fluids remains undetermined due to technical difficulties originating from its unexpected(More)
The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), which is a recently discovered molecule of the renin-angiotensin system, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular properties and the subcellular distribution of (P)RR remain controversial. In this study, (P)RR-Venus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells ((P)RR-Venus-CHO) or(More)
We determined whether up to 24 h of ischemia could induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain of nonhuman primates. Randomized animals were subjected to either a 2 h ischemia (group II; n=3) or a 24 h ischemia (group III; n=3). Three animals in group I served as controls. In group III, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral(More)
One of the most important prognostic factors in the thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic stroke is to re-canalize. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of urokinase in a primate thromboembolic stroke model. Thromboembolic stroke was accomplished via occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) obtained by injecting an(More)
Preventive effect of taurine against acute paraquat intoxication in beagles. Japan. Single dose suppression of morphine withdrawal signs by morphine, butorphanol, haloperidol, and imipramine in male cynomolgus monkeys. SE: Caffeine-induced opiate-like withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent male cynomolgus monkeys. repeated oral dose toxicity studies with(More)
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