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The Oryza sativa (rice) resistance gene Pia confers resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae carrying the AVR-Pia avirulence gene. To clone Pia, we employed a multifaceted genomics approach. First, we selected 12 R-gene analog (RGA) genes encoding nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeats (NBS-LRRs) proteins from a region on chromosome 11 that(More)
Rhizopus oryzae is the primary cause of mucormycosis, an emerging, life-threatening infection characterized by rapid angioinvasive growth with an overall mortality rate that exceeds 50%. As a representative of the paraphyletic basal group of the fungal kingdom called "zygomycetes," R. oryzae is also used as a model to study fungal evolution. Here we report(More)
In order to establish the molecular phylogeny of the genus Rhizopus, three molecules of the ribosomal RNA-encoding DNA (rDNA), complete 18S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2, and 28S D1/D2 regions of all the species of the genus were sequenced. Phylogenetic trees showed three major clusters corresponding to the three groups in the current(More)
The zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae currently is identified by sporangiophore morphology and growth temperature, but heterogeneity of the species has been reported. We examined the suitability of organic acid production as an effective taxonomic character for reclassification of the species. Strains were divided into two groups, LA (lactic acid producer) and FMA(More)
In order to establish the molecular taxonomy of the genus Rhizopus, all described species of the genus were collected and the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA gene (rDNA ITS), actin, and translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) were determined. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that R. americanus had a R.(More)
An obligately anaerobic and equol-producing bacterium, designated strain do03T, was isolated from the caecal content of a rat. Cells were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming rods. The results from a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain do03T formed a separate line of descent in the phylogenetic cluster of the family(More)
Rhizopus oryzae is an important organism for its production of organic acids such as lactic acid, fumaric acid, etc. To date, there were no easy methods to classify strains according to their acid production. The sequences of the ribosomal RNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 64 strains of R. oryzae were analyzed and found to(More)
Di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride (DFA III) was shown to enhance Ca absorption in rat and human intestine. The effects of DFA III administration (9 g per day for 4 weeks that corresponded to 3-fold the optimal dosage of DFA III) on human intestinal microbiota were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The major groups of(More)
Twenty-one strains of Amylomyces rouxii isolated from starters of Asian fermented foods were divided into two groups, lactic acid (LA) and fumaric and malic acid (FMA) producers, by organic acid productivity in liquid culture. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ldhB gene, ribosomal RNA encoding DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence, and(More)
Isoflavones (mainly daidzein and genistin) belong to the flavonoid group of compounds and are classified as phytoestrogens. In the intestine, daidzin is converted to daidzein by beta-glucosidase, and then daidzein is converted to O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) or equol via dihydrodaidzein by enzymes of intestinal bacteria. We isolated, for the first time, an(More)