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Reward is important for shaping goal-directed behaviour. After stimulus-reward associative learning, an organism can assess the motivational value of the incoming stimuli on the basis of past experience (retrospective processing), and predict forthcoming rewarding events (prospective processing). The traditional role of the sensory thalamus is to relay(More)
Neuronal activities were recorded from the amygdala and amygdalostriatal transition area of behaving rats during discrimination of conditioned auditory, visual, olfactory, and somatosensory stimuli associated with positive and/or negative reinforcements. Neurons were also tested with taste solution and various sensory stimuli that were not associated with(More)
The amygdala (AM) receives information from various sensory modalities via the neocortex and directly from the thalamus and brain stem and plays an important role in ingestive behaviors. In the present study, neuronal activity was recorded in the AM and amygdalostriatal transition area of rats during discrimination of conditioned sensory stimuli and(More)
Amygdala role in emotion was reviewed in reference to recent amygdala lesion studies and neuronal responses in the rat amygdala to conditioned stimuli. Extensive lesion studies suggest that the amygdala is crucial in various kinds of motivated and emotional behavior, and related autonomic responses. These amygdala functions critically depend on learning and(More)
Pharmacological studies have suggested that the cholinergic (ACh) and noradrenergic (NA) systems in the amygdala (AM) play an important role in learning and memory storage and that the two systems interact to modulate memory storage. To obtain anatomical evidence for the interaction, the organization of the ACh and NA fibers in rat AM was investigated by(More)
The human hippocampus is critical for learning and memory. In rodents, hippocampal pyramidal neurons fire in a location-specific manner, forming relational representations of environmental cues. The importance of glutamatergic systems in learning and in hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity has been shown. However, the role of dopaminergic systems in the(More)
Predicting reward is essential in learning approach behaviors. Dopaminergic activity has been implicated in reward, movement, and cognitive processes, all essential elements in learning. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) receives converging inputs from corticolimbic information-processing areas and from mesolimbic dopamine neurons originating in the ventral(More)
By binding multisensory signals, we get robust percepts and respond to our surroundings more correctly and quickly. How and where does the brain link cross-modal sensory information to produce such behavioral advantages? The classical role of sensory thalamus is to relay modality-specific information to the cortex. Here we find that, in the rat thalamus,(More)
Neuronal activity was recorded from the anterior cingulate cortex of behaving rats during discrimination and learning of conditioned stimuli associated with or without reinforcements. The rats were trained to lick a protruding spout just after a conditioned stimulus to obtain reward (intracranial self-stimulation or sucrose solution) or to avoid aversion.(More)
1. Unit activity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and blood pressure (BP) of the rat were recorded during discrimination learning of cue tone (CTS+) predicting reward [glucose and intracranial self stimulation (ICSS)], and cue tone (CTS-) predicting aversion (electric shock or tail pinch). Adrenergic systems in the PVN were investigated by(More)