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BACKGROUND The amplification of oncogenes in cancer cells is often mediated by paired acentric chromatin bodies called double minute chromosomes (DMs), which can accumulate to a high copy number because of their autonomous replication during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle and their subsequent uneven distribution to daughter cells during mitosis.(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are nonpolyadenylated, untranslated RNAs, exist most abundantly in latently EBV-infected cells, and are expected to show secondary structures with many short stem-loops. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic protein that detects viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) inside the cell and(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA 1 (EBER1) and EBER2 are untranslated RNAs and the most abundant viral transcripts in latently EBV-infected cells. We previously reported that EBERs play a critical role in efficient EBV-induced growth transformation of primary B cells. To investigate whether EBER1 and EBER2 have distinct roles in B-cell growth(More)
It was demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) were nonessential for B-lymphocyte growth transformation. We revisited this issue by producing a large quantity of EBER-deleted EBV by using an Akata cell system. Although the EBER-deleted virus efficiently infected B lymphocytes, its 50% transforming dose was approximately(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection converts primary human B cells into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). To examine the role of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) 3C in the proliferation of LCLs, we established LCLs infected with an EBV recombinant that expresses EBNA3C with a C-terminal fusion to a 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT)-dependent(More)
The regulation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) late gene expression by viral proteins is poorly understood, and these viral proteins could be targets for novel antivirals. HCMV open reading frames (ORFs) UL79, -87, and -95 encode proteins with homology to late gene transcription factors of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 ORFs 18, 24, and 34, respectively. To(More)
We demonstrate here that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, a switch from latent infection to lytic infection, is expressed as early as 1.5 h after EBV infection in Burkitt's lymphoma-derived, EBV-negative Akata and Daudi cells and primary B lymphocytes. Since BZLF1 mRNA is expressed even when the cells are infected with EBV in the presence of(More)
An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome in Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line Akata was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector. The BAC clone, designated AK-BAC, was rapidly and precisely modified by means of efficient homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. This system was used to produce recombinant EBVs with transgenes. An(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human oncogenic herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latent infection in the host, occasionally enters lytic infection to produce progeny viruses. The EBV oncogene latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which is expressed in both latent and lytic infection, constitutively activates the canonical NF-κB (p65) pathway. Such(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) predominantly establishes latent infection in B cells, and the reactivation of the virus from latency is dependent on the expression of the viral BZLF1 protein. The BZLF1 promoter (Zp) normally exhibits only low basal activity but is activated in response to chemical or biological inducers, such as(More)