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Exposures to sufficiently high doses of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol, 2-ME) have been found to produce developmental effects in rodents and nonhuman primates. The acetic acid metabolite of 2-ME, 2-methoxyacetic acid (2-MAA), is the likely toxicant, and, as such, an understanding of the kinetics of 2-MAA is important when assessing the(More)
Chronic inhalation studies with 2-butoxyethanol (BE) conducted by the National Toxicology Program identified the forestomach and liver of B6C3F1 mice as target organs for tumorigenicity (NTP, 2000). Previous studies have shown that the liver tumors likely resulted from chronic hemolysis-induced oxidative stress. For the forestomach lesions seen in mice,(More)
Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases(More)
In today's scientific and regulatory climates, an increased emphasis is placed on the potential health impacts for children exposed either in utero or by nursing to drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals, and industrial or consumer chemicals. As a result, there is a renewed interest in the development and application of biologically based computational models that(More)
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent to which there is considerable human exposure. To assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000, or 3000 ppm MEK vapors 7 hr/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. Groups consisted of about 30 bred females each. Exposure(More)
The anticonvulsant, valproic acid (VPA) is a suspected human teratogen. This study, employing the rhesus monkey as an animal model, demonstrates that VPA has a significant teratogenic potential in the monkey. Timed pregnant monkeys were exposed orally to VPA at approx. 1X, 10X, and 30X (20, 200, and 600 mg/kg/day, respectively) the human therapeutic dose,(More)
The solvents ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), at sufficiently high doses, are known to be rodent developmental toxicants, exerting their toxic effects through the action of their metabolite 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2-EAA). Thus risks associated with exposure to these compounds are best evaluated based(More)
A series of studies to further evaluate the developmental and reproductive toxicity of inhaled 1,3-butadiene was sponsored by the National Toxicology Program. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (24-28/group) and Swiss (CD-1) mice (18-22/group) were exposed to atmospheric concentrations of 0, 40, 200, or 1000 ppm 1,3-butadiene for 6 hr/day on days 6 through 15 of(More)
A chronic inhalation toxicity/carcinogenicity study of potassium octatitanate fibers (TISMO) was conducted in male Fischer 344 rats. Groups of 135 rats were exposed via whole-body inhalation to 0, 20, 60, or 200 WHO fibers/cc of TISMO, 6 h/day, 5 days/w for 24 mo. Six of 30 subgroup rats were killed after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo of exposure for lung burden(More)
Longitudinal data were analyzed for seminal characteristics of rhesus monkeys and beagles. The monkeys were exposed to DBCP; the beagles were exposed to acute or chronic whole body gamma irradiation. The semen was analyzed for volume and sperm concentration. Sperm were measured for percent motility, swimming speed, and head dimensions. Abnormalities of the(More)