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By using a potential-dependent J-aggregate-forming delocalized lipophilic cation, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine++ + iodide (JC-1), we find that membrane potentials across mitochondria in a living cell can be heterogeneous. Remarkably, even within a long contiguous mitochondrion, regional heterogeneity in membrane(More)
Opioid treatment of pain is generally safe with 0.5% or less events from respiratory depression. However, fatalities are regularly reported. The only treatment currently available to reverse opioid respiratory depression is by naloxone infusion. The efficacy of naloxone depends on its own pharmacological characteristics and on those (including receptor(More)
Axonal swellings are the major histologic hallmark of diffuse axonal injury in craniocerebral trauma. In this study, we compared conventional histologic and immunohistochemical methods for demonstrating axonal swellings in 11 cases of head trauma. Brain regions known to be susceptible to diffuse axonal injury were examined with conventional(More)
Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) appears to show equivalent analgesia to morphine but to have a superior side-effect profile in terms of reduced liability to induce nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence behind this statement and to identify the possible reasons that may contribute to the profile of(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid-induced respiratory depression is antagonized effectively by the competitive opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, to fully understand the complex opioid agonist-antagonist interaction, the effects of various naloxone doses on morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G)-induced respiratory depression were studied in healthy(More)
Opioids induce respiratory depression via activation of μ-opioid receptors at specific sites in the central nervous system including the pre-Bötzinger complex, a respiratory rhythm generating area in the pons. Full opioid agonists like morphine and fentanyl affect breathing with onset and offset profiles that are primarily determined by opioid transfer to(More)
Somatic mutations have been implicated as critical early events in carcinogenesis. Point mutations, deletions, and translocation events have been shown to activate oncogenes or inactivate suppressor oncogenes. In human population monitoring, quantitative analysis of mutation events that affect gene function is limited to those genes whose cellular(More)
A new visual acuity testing device is able to determine a specific visual acuity of the retina even in the presence of opacities of the ocular media, such as a cataract. This is achieved by forming two spatially coherent, quasimonochromatic point sources near the nodal point of the eye. The two spherical waves that emanate from the point sources interact to(More)
Available evidence suggests that the propensity of digitalis glycosides to produce cardiac arrhythmias is due in part to their neuroexictatory effects. We have performed experiments in cats which support the existence of a neurogenic component in the etiology of digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Our data further indicate that the locus of this(More)
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