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Complete inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene is extremely common in advanced cancer, including prostate cancer (CaP). However, one PTEN allele is already lost in the vast majority of CaPs at presentation. To determine the consequence of PTEN dose variations on cancer progression, we have generated by homologous recombination a hypomorphic Pten(More)
The poor clinical outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is attributed to intrinsic chemoresistance and a growth-permissive tumor microenvironment. Conversion of quiescent to activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) drives the severe stromal reaction that characterizes PDA. Here, we reveal that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in(More)
Our understanding of cancer has largely come from the analysis of aberrations within the tumor cell population. Yet it is increasingly clear that the tumor microenvironment can significantly influence tumorigenesis. For example, the mesenchyme can support the growth of tumorigenic epithelium. However, whether fibroblasts are subject to genetic/epigenetic(More)
Retinoblastoma 1 (pRb) and the related pocket proteins, retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107) and retinoblastoma-like 2 (p130) (pRb(f), collectively), play a pivotal role in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and terminal differentiation. While aberrations in the pRb-signaling pathway are common in human cancers, the consequence of pRb(f) loss(More)
Ras interacts with many downstream effectors that regulate complex cytoplasmic signaling networks. In this issue, Gupta et al. (2007) use mouse models of Ras-mediated tumorigenesis to show that the interaction of Ras with a single isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), called p110alpha (PIK3CA), is critical for tumor formation. This result will(More)
Significant advances have been made in developing novel therapeutics for cancer treatment, and targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of some cancers. Despite the promise, only about five percent of new cancer drugs are approved, and most fail due to lack of efficacy. The indication is that current preclinical methods are limited in predicting(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is prevalent and shows a rapid course in African individuals. Although a strong focus has been placed on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, new methods support the existence of a complex subgingival microflora in AgP. The purpose of the present study was to map the subgingival microbiota as well as(More)