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A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range… (More)
21 , as observed during SERIES. Trapping efficiency is thought to be determined by the characteristics of sinking particles, trap design and upper-ocean hydrodynamics 19. The location of the 'In' traps relative to the patch was monitored using a logging fluorometer 10 m subsurface on the surface-tethered array. Traps remained near the patch centre; on day… (More)
Cheating has dramatically increased, at all levels, in the past few years. How cheating and false identity issues are addressed by individual online education programs will determine the collective futures of everyone working in e-learning.