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Urbanization, resource exploitation, and lifestyle changes have diminished possibilities for human contact with nature in urbanized societies. Concern about the loss has helped motivate research on the health benefits of contact with nature. Reviewing that research here, we focus on nature as represented by aspects of the physical environment relevant to(More)
Well-developed theory implies that the human secondary sex ratio moves inversely over time with the level of anxiety and depression in the population. Few tests of this hypothesis, however, appear in the voluminous literature concerned with the sex ratio. These tests, moreover, employ designs that allow only weak inference. We contribute to the literature(More)
Little attention has been paid to the ecological effects of unemployment, despite strong theory suggesting that being socially or economically connected to unemployed persons can induce illness. Theory suggests, for example, that the labor market experience of adult males should affect maternal and infant health. We advance this line of inquiry by testing(More)
Prime minister Olof Palme's murder in 1986 and the sinking of the ferry Estonia in 1994 were stressful events for many Swedes, but did that stress affect health? We used an interrupted time-series design to measure the association between these events and the incidence of very low birthweight. Effects of male unemployment, size of the birth cohort, and(More)
BACKGROUND Outpatient prescription medication spending in Sweden has increased sharply since 1974. The Swedish government has raised copayments to reduce medication consumption and limit the growth of medication spending. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the 1995 and 1997 copayment increases on Swedish consumption of(More)
BACKGROUND Cities are expanding and accommodating an increasing proportion of the world's population. It is important to identify features of urban form that promote the health of city dwellers. Access to green space has been associated with health benefits at both individual and neighbourhood level. We investigated whether a relationship between green(More)
Positive environmental determinants of exercise frequency remain poorly understood. Knowing that people often value exercise for psychological restoration, we investigated the restorative quality of indoor and outdoor exercise settings as predictors of exercise frequency. We surveyed 319 members of fitness centers in Zurich that offer indoor and outdoor(More)
AIMS To assess the association between housing tenure and early retirement for health reasons in Sweden with a view to psychosocial vs. material values of home ownership. METHODS The data come from linked registers that cover all people resident in Sweden during 1990-2000. The study population consists of 449,233 people aged 40-63 years in 1997. Of these,(More)
Because people often say one thing and do another, social psychologists have abandoned the idea of a simple or axiomatic connection between attitude and behavior. Nearly 50 years ago, however, Donald Campbell proposed that the root of the seeming inconsistency between attitude and behavior lies in disregard of behavioral costs. According to Campbell,(More)