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Human milk, after storage and pasteurisation at 73 degrees C for 30 minutes at a milk bank, was found to have little surviving IgA, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and C3 complement. Accurate pasteurisation at 62.5 degrees C produced a loss of 23.7% of the lysozyme, 56.8% of the lactoferrin 34% of the IgG, but no loss of IgA. Storage by deep freezing at -20(More)
The experimentally amenable nature of phage and their use in testing fundamental biological questions have meant that phage research has had a profound effect on modern molecular biology. Phage research has also fuelled multiple biotechnological developments. For example, phage display has recently been harnessed in a multidisciplinary approach for the(More)
Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising nanomaterials, their potential carcinogenicity is a major concern. We previously established a genetic method of analyzing genotoxicity of chemical compounds, where we evaluated their cytotoxic effect on the DT40 lymphoid cell line comparing DNA-repair-deficient isogenic clones with parental wild-type cells.(More)
Cytochrome c6A is a unique dithio-cytochrome present in land plants and some green algae. Its sequence and occurrence in the thylakoid lumen suggest that it is derived from cytochrome c6, which functions in photosynthetic electron transfer between the cytochrome b6f complex and photosystem I. Its known properties, however, and a strong indication that the(More)
Abortive infection, during which an infected bacterial cell commits altruistic suicide to destroy the replicating bacteriophage and protect the clonal population, can be mediated by toxin-antitoxin systems such as the Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin system, ToxIN. A flagellum-dependent bacteriophage of the Myoviridae, ΦTE, evolved rare mutants that(More)
Chemicals used industrially and commercially are required by law to be assessed for their genotoxic potential. However, all currently used assays have major limitations and despite intense effort, there is no universal agreement on which tests should be employed, or how to interpret results. We have developed a new assay system using the chicken DT40 B cell(More)
In the present study, the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on alterations of hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) and trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Fe) were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats, age- and sex-matched controls, as well as control and diabetic animals on a dual ETA/ETB receptor blocker, bosentan, were investigated(More)
The Cp promoter of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) directs most transcription of the EBNA genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The functions of two control regions in the Cp promoter have been studied by construction of recombinant EBV strains containing specific mutations in these elements. Mutation of the RBP-Jk (CBF1) binding site reduced but did not completely(More)
Group I Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines conditionally expressing the CD21 receptor for EBV infection were superinfected with EBV. The incoming EBV entered its normal program of gene expression, producing EBNA-2 and LMP-1 and activating the Cp EBNA promoter, but the endogenous virus in the BL lines was not induced to express EBNA-2 or transcribe RNA from Cp.(More)