Terry Ann Krulwich

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The effect of external pH on growth of alkaliphilic Bacillus firmus OF4 was studied in steady-state, pH-controlled cultures at various pH values. Generation times of 54 and 38 min were observed at external pH values of 7.5 and 10.6, respectively. At more alkaline pH values, generation times increased, reaching 690 min at pH 11.4; this was approximately the(More)
Entry and extrusion of cations are essential processes in living cells. In alkaliphilic prokaryotes, high external pH activates voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which allows Na(+) to enter and be used as substrate for cation/proton antiporters responsible for cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. Here, we describe a new member of the prokaryotic voltage-gated(More)
The prokaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) channel, NaChBac, is one of a growing channel superfamily of unknown function. Here we show that Na(V)BP, the NaChBac homologue encoded by ncbA in alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, is a voltage-gated Na(+) channel potentiated by alkaline pH. Na(V)BP has roles in motility, chemotaxis, and pH homeostasis at high pH.(More)
We solved the crystal structure of a novel type of c-ring isolated from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 at 2.5 A, revealing a cylinder with a tridecameric stoichiometry, a central pore, and an overall shape that is distinct from those reported thus far. Within the groove of two neighboring c-subunits, the conserved glutamate of the outer helix shares the proton(More)
The TetL antiporter from the Bacillus subtilis inner membrane is a tetracycline-divalent cation efflux protein that is energized by the electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane. In this study, we expressed tetL in Escherichia coli and investigated the oligomeric state of TetL in the membrane and in detergent solution. Evidence for an oligomeric(More)
A 5.9-kb region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome is transcribed as a single transcript that is predicted to encode seven membrane-spanning proteins. Homologues of the first gene of this operon, for which the designation mrp (multiple resistance and pH adaptation) is proposed here, have been suggested to encode an Na+/H+ antiporter or a K+/H+ antiporter.(More)
The large majority of proteins of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 grown at pH 7.5 and 10.5, as studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses, did not exhibit significant pH-dependent variation. A new surface layer protein (SlpA) was identified in these studies. Although the prominence of some apparent breakdown products of SlpA in gels from(More)
The Bacillus subtilis mrp (multiple resistance and pH) operon supports Na(+) and alkali resistance via an Na(+)/H(+) antiport, as well as cholate efflux and resistance. Among the individual mutants with nonpolar mutations in each of the seven mrp genes, only the mrpF mutant exhibited cholate sensitivity and a cholate efflux defect that were complemented by(More)
UNLABELLED Staphylococcus aureus exhibits an unusually high level of osmotolerance and Na(+) tolerance, properties that support survival in various host niches and in preserved foods. The genetic basis of these traits is not well understood. We compared the transcriptional profiles of S. aureus grown in complex medium with and without 2 M NaCl. The stimulon(More)
Isolated membrane vesicles from the obligately acidophilic bacterium Bacillus acidocaldarius generated an electrochemical gradient of protons (delta mu- H+) upon energization with ascorbate-phenazine methosulfate at pH 6.0 or 3.0. At pH 6.0, there was little or no transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH), but a transmembrane electrical potential (delta psi) of(More)