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An investment horizon is in practice not frequently known with certainty at the initial investment date. This paper addresses the problem of pricing and hedging a random cash-‡ow received at a random date in a general stochastic environment. We …rst argue that speci…c timing risk is induced by the presence of an uncertain time-horizon if and only if the(More)
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a culture-independent method of obtaining a genetic fingerprint of the composition of a microbial community. Comparisons of the utility of different methods of (i) including peaks, (ii) computing the difference (or distance) between profiles, and (iii) performing statistical analysis were made by(More)
We evaluated the impact of outdoor exercise equipment (FZ, Fitness Zones) in 12 parks serving diverse populations. We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to assess use and estimate energy expenditure prior to and twice after FZ installation. Park use increased more in FZ parks than in 10 control parks that did not get(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess how park characteristics and demographic factors are associated with park use. METHODS We studied a diverse sample of parks in a Southern California metropolitan area in 2006-2008 representing a variety of racial and ethnic communities of different socioeconomic strata. We surveyed 51 park directors, 4257 park users and local(More)
BACKGROUND Many assume that improving the quality and the perceived safety of facilities in parks and recreation centers is critical to attracting more users and increasing population physical activity. There are few studies in which these assumptions have been tested. PURPOSE This study aims to assess the impact of park improvements on park use and(More)
BACKGROUND Physical inactivity is an important health risk factor that could be addressed at the community level. PURPOSE The goal of the study was to determine whether using a community-based participatory approach with park directors and park advisory boards (PABs) could increase physical activity in local parks. Whether involving PABs would be more(More)
INTRODUCTION An extensive infrastructure of neighborhood parks supports leisure time physical activity in most U.S. cities; yet, most Americans do not meet national guidelines for physical activity. Neighborhood parks have never been assessed nationally to identify their role in physical activity. METHODS Using a stratified multistage sampling strategy, a(More)
BACKGROUND Given the concerns about low rates of physical activity among low-income minority youth, many community-based organizations are investing in the creation or renovation of public parks to encourage youth to become more physically active. To what degree park renovations accomplish this goal is not known. METHODS We used the System for Observing(More)