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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric CM, a common often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM with those in a control group who were infected with malaria(More)
We examined the brains of 50 Malawian children who satisfied the clinical definition of cerebral malaria (CM) during life; 37 children had sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and no other cause of death, and 13 had a nonmalarial cause of death with no cerebral sequestration. For comparison, 18 patients with coma and no parasitemia were(More)
INTRODUCTION The causes of coma and death in cerebral malaria remain unknown. Malarial retinopathy has been identified as an important clinical sign in the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral malaria. As part of a larger autopsy study to determine causes of death in children with coma presenting to hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, who were fully evaluated(More)
Severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in Africa, leading to a failure to treat other life-threatening illnesses. In malaria-endemic areas, parasitemia does not ensure a diagnosis of severe malaria because parasitemia can be incidental to other concurrent disease. The detection of malarial retinopathy is a candidate diagnostic test for cerebral malaria.(More)
BACKGROUND Differentiating cerebral malaria (CM) from other causes of serious illness in African children is problematic, owing to the non-specific nature of the clinical presentation and the high prevalence of incidental parasitaemia. CM is associated with endothelial activation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived biomarkers(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral malaria, a disorder characterised by coma, parasitaemia, and no other evident cause of coma, is challenging to diagnose definitively in endemic regions that have high rates of asymptomatic parasitaemia and limited neurodiagnostic facilities. A recently described malaria retinopathy improves diagnostic specificity. We aimed to establish(More)
BACKGROUND Raised HIV viral load in blood has been associated with accelerated disease progression and increased transmission of infection. To assess the effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on concentrations of HIV in blood, we did a prospective cohort study in Malawi. METHODS We recruited 367 HIV-1-infected adults. Among 334 people aparasitaemic at(More)
BACKGROUND In spite of the significant mortality associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, the mechanisms underlying severe disease remain poorly understood. We have previously shown evidence of endothelial activation in Ghanaian children with malaria, indicated by elevated plasma levels of both von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its propeptide. In the(More)
BACKGROUND The inflammatory nature of falciparum malaria has been acknowledged since increased circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were first measured, but precisely where the mediators downstream from this prototype inflammatory mediator are generated has not been investigated. Here we report on the cellular distribution, by(More)