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To study the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, we conducted autopsies in 31 children with this clinical diagnosis. We found that 23% of the children had actually died from other causes. The remaining patients had parasites sequestered in cerebral capillaries, and 75% of those had additional intra- and perivascular pathology. Retinopathy was the only(More)
We studied the relationship between presenting features and outcome in 131 Malawian children admitted with cerebral malaria (P. falciparum malaria and unrousable coma). A method was devised for the measurement of depth of coma in children too young to speak. Twenty patients (15 per cent) died and 12 (9 per cent) recovered with residual neurological(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of mortality in African children and the mechanisms underlying its development, namely how malaria-infected erythrocytes (IEs) cause disease and why the brain is preferentially affected, remain unclear. Brain microhemorrhages in CM suggest a clotting disorder, but whether this phenomenon is important in pathogenesis is(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on susceptibility to malaria, we compared the incidence rates of malaria by HIV type 1 (HIV-1) serostatus, baseline blood HIV-1 RNA concentration, and baseline CD4 cell count, over the course of a malaria season. METHODS We followed a cohort of 349 adults in Malawi. For the(More)
OBJECTIVES To relate retinal findings in children treated for severe malaria to disease outcome and to determine the course of changes in the fundus. METHODS A prospective study of children with cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia admitted to the Malaria Research Project, Blantyre, Malawi, during 2 malaria seasons. Indirect and direct(More)
To investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor in Plasmodium falciparum infections, we measured serum concentrations of this cytokine in 65 Malawian children with severe falciparum malaria. Of these children (mean age, 5.3 years), 55 were unconscious and 10 had hypoglycemia at presentation. Although there was considerable overlap, the mean (+/- SEM)(More)
We examined the brains of 50 Malawian children who satisfied the clinical definition of cerebral malaria (CM) during life; 37 children had sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and no other cause of death, and 13 had a nonmalarial cause of death with no cerebral sequestration. For comparison, 18 patients with coma and no parasitemia were(More)
We report a genome-wide association (GWA) study of severe malaria in The Gambia. The initial GWA scan included 2,500 children genotyped on the Affymetrix 500K GeneChip, and a replication study included 3,400 children. We used this to examine the performance of GWA methods in Africa. We found considerable population stratification, and also that signals of(More)
In 1993, Malawi became the first African country to replace chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine nationwide in response to high rates of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. To determine whether withdrawal of chloroquine can lead to the reemergence of chloroquine sensitivity, the prevalence of the pfcrt 76T molecular marker for(More)
BACKGROUND In 1993, Malawi became the first country in Africa to replace chloroquine with the combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine for the treatment of malaria. At that time, the clinical efficacy of chloroquine was less than 50%. The molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria subsequently declined in prevalence and was(More)