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To study the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, we conducted autopsies in 31 children with this clinical diagnosis. We found that 23% of the children had actually died from other causes. The remaining patients had parasites sequestered in cerebral capillaries, and 75% of those had additional intra- and perivascular pathology. Retinopathy was the only(More)
We studied the relationship between presenting features and outcome in 131 Malawian children admitted with cerebral malaria (P. falciparum malaria and unrousable coma). A method was devised for the measurement of depth of coma in children too young to speak. Twenty patients (15 per cent) died and 12 (9 per cent) recovered with residual neurological(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of mortality in African children and the mechanisms underlying its development, namely how malaria-infected erythrocytes (IEs) cause disease and why the brain is preferentially affected, remain unclear. Brain microhemorrhages in CM suggest a clotting disorder, but whether this phenomenon is important in pathogenesis is(More)
OBJECTIVES To relate retinal findings in children treated for severe malaria to disease outcome and to determine the course of changes in the fundus. METHODS A prospective study of children with cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia admitted to the Malaria Research Project, Blantyre, Malawi, during 2 malaria seasons. Indirect and direct(More)
We report a genome-wide association (GWA) study of severe malaria in The Gambia. The initial GWA scan included 2,500 children genotyped on the Affymetrix 500K GeneChip, and a replication study included 3,400 children. We used this to examine the performance of GWA methods in Africa. We found considerable population stratification, and also that signals of(More)
Retinal haemorrhages increase in number with severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and occur in 35-40% of children with cerebral malaria. We performed clinical retinal examinations and histopathological examinations of retina, and parietal and cerebellar sections of the brains, in 33 children in Malawi who died with cerebral malaria, severe malaria(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with cerebral malaria (CM), retinal angiography allows the study of infected central nervous system microvasculature in vivo. We aimed to examine retinal perfusion in children with CM by use of fluorescein angiography to investigate the pathophysiology of CM. METHODS We performed fluorescein angiography on children with CM admitted(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a homolog of the mammalian histamine-releasing factor (HRF), which causes histamine release from human basophils and IL-8 secretion from eosinophils. Histamine, IL-8, and eosinophils have been reported to be elevated in patients with malaria. This study was undertaken to determine(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on susceptibility to malaria, we compared the incidence rates of malaria by HIV type 1 (HIV-1) serostatus, baseline blood HIV-1 RNA concentration, and baseline CD4 cell count, over the course of a malaria season. METHODS We followed a cohort of 349 adults in Malawi. For the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric CM, a common often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM with those in a control group who were infected with malaria(More)