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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric CM, a common often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM with those in a control group who were infected with malaria(More)
In 1993, Malawi became the first African country to replace chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine nationwide in response to high rates of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. To determine whether withdrawal of chloroquine can lead to the reemergence of chloroquine sensitivity, the prevalence of the pfcrt 76T molecular marker for(More)
The spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been a major impediment to malaria control and threatens prospects for elimination. We recently demonstrated the return of chloroquine-susceptible malaria in Malawi after chloroquine use was abandoned. In this study, we trace the origins of chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-susceptible(More)
We examined the brains of 50 Malawian children who satisfied the clinical definition of cerebral malaria (CM) during life; 37 children had sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and no other cause of death, and 13 had a nonmalarial cause of death with no cerebral sequestration. For comparison, 18 patients with coma and no parasitemia were(More)
Severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in Africa, leading to a failure to treat other life-threatening illnesses. In malaria-endemic areas, parasitemia does not ensure a diagnosis of severe malaria because parasitemia can be incidental to other concurrent disease. The detection of malarial retinopathy is a candidate diagnostic test for cerebral malaria.(More)
BACKGROUND Previous prospective studies of bacteremia in African children with severe malaria have mainly included children with cerebral malaria, and no study has examined the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We examined the prevalence and etiology of bacteremia and the impact of HIV infection on bacteremia in Malawian children with(More)
BACKGROUND Differentiating cerebral malaria (CM) from other causes of serious illness in African children is problematic, owing to the non-specific nature of the clinical presentation and the high prevalence of incidental parasitaemia. CM is associated with endothelial activation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived biomarkers(More)
BACKGROUND Raised HIV viral load in blood has been associated with accelerated disease progression and increased transmission of infection. To assess the effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on concentrations of HIV in blood, we did a prospective cohort study in Malawi. METHODS We recruited 367 HIV-1-infected adults. Among 334 people aparasitaemic at(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral malaria, a disorder characterised by coma, parasitaemia, and no other evident cause of coma, is challenging to diagnose definitively in endemic regions that have high rates of asymptomatic parasitaemia and limited neurodiagnostic facilities. A recently described malaria retinopathy improves diagnostic specificity. We aimed to establish(More)