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A recombinant virus assay was used to characterize in detail neutralizing antibody responses directed at circulating autologous HIV in plasma. Examining serial plasma specimens in a matrix format, most patients with primary HIV infection rapidly generated significant neutralizing antibody responses to early (0-39 months) autologous viruses, whereas(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), which develop over time in some HIV-1-infected individuals, define critical epitopes for HIV vaccine design. Using a systematic approach, we have examined neutralization breadth in the sera of about 1800 HIV-1-infected individuals, primarily infected with non-clade B viruses, and have selected donors for monoclonal(More)
Broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly variable viral pathogens are much sought after to treat or protect against global circulating viruses. Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies(More)
BACKGROUND In many patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, therapy with potent antiretroviral drugs does not result in complete suppression of HIV replication. The effect of cessation of therapy in these patients is unknown. METHODS Sixteen patients who had a plasma HIV RNA level of more than 2500 copies per milliliter during(More)
Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid progression to AIDS after acute HIV-1 infection, though uncommon, has been noted, as has the transmission of multidrug resistant viruses. Here, we describe a patient in whom these two factors arose concomitantly and assess the effects. METHODS We did a case study of a patient with HIV-1 seroconversion. We genotyped the virus and host(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been documented in a minority of HIV-infected individuals. The mechanisms behind this outcome remain largely unknown, and a better understanding of them will likely influence future vaccine strategies. METHODS HIV-specific T cell and antibody responses as well as host(More)
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) can rapidly escape from neutralizing antibody responses. The genetic basis of this escape in vivo is poorly understood. We compared the pattern of evolution of the HIV-1 env gene between individuals with recent HIV infection whose virus exhibited either a low or a high rate of escape from neutralizing antibody responses. We demonstrate(More)
Spontaneous and sustained ("elite," or aviremic) control of HIV infection (ie, maintaining HIV RNA to less than 50 copies/mL in the absence of therapy) appears to occur in approximately 1 in 300 HIV-infected persons, and represents a distinct phenotype among HIV-infected individuals. Through a recently established international collaboration called the HIV(More)
Two amino acids inserted between residues 69 and 70 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) are rare mutations that may develop in viruses containing multiple thymidine analog (zidovudine [AZT], stavudine)-associated mutations and that confer high-level resistance to all currently approved chain-terminating nucleoside and(More)