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Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and cellular damage can occur through alkylation of crucial cellular(More)
The analgesic acetaminophen causes a potentially fatal, hepatic centrilobular necrosis when taken in overdose. The initial phases of toxicity were described in Dr. Gillette's laboratory in the 1970s. These findings indicated that acetaminophen was metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes to a reactive metabolite that depleted glutathione (GSH) and(More)
Metabolism of benzene is required to produce the classical hematological disorders associated with its exposure. After coadministration of hydroquinone (0.9 mmol/kg, ip) and phenol (1.1 mmol/kg, ip) to male Sprague-Dawley rats and DBA/2 mice, 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone was identified in the bone marrow of both species.(More)
The selective serotonergic neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) depends on their systemic metabolism. We have recently shown that inhibition of brain endothelial cell gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) potentiates the neurotoxicity of both MDMA and MDA, indicating that metabolites(More)
In this study, we show that 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a putative metabolite of benzene, induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Prior to the onset of apoptosis, TGHQ depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent manner. Neutral, Mg(2+)-dependent sphingomyelinases, which(More)
The amphetamine designer drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and its N-demethylated analogue 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA or "love") have been extensively used as recreational drugs of abuse. MDA itself is a main MDMA metabolite. MDMA abuse in humans has been associated with numerous reports of hepatocellular damage. Although(More)
The serotonergic neurotoxicity of 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) appears dependent upon systemic metabolism because direct injection of MDMA into the brain fails to reproduce the neurotoxicity. MDMA is demethylenated to the catechol metabolite N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-alpha-MeDA). Thioether (glutathione and N-acetylcysteine)(More)
Direct injection of either 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) into the brain fails to reproduce the serotonergic neurotoxicity seen following peripheral administration. The serotonergic neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA therefore appears to be dependent upon the generation of a neurotoxic metabolite, or(More)
2,3,5-Tris(glutathion-S-yl)-hydroquinone (TGHQ), a metabolite of hydroquinone, is toxic to renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. TGHQ retains the ability to redox cycle and create an oxidative stress. To assist in elucidating the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to TGHQ-induced toxicity, we determined whether the antioxidant,(More)
3,4-(+/-)-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are serotonergic neurotoxicants. However, when injected directly into brain, MDA and MDMA are not neurotoxic, suggesting that systemic metabolism plays an important role in the development of neurotoxicity. The nature of the metabolite(s) responsible for MDA- and(More)