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Direct injection of either 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) into the brain fails to reproduce the serotonergic neurotoxicity seen following peripheral administration. The serotonergic neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA therefore appears to be dependent upon the generation of a neurotoxic metabolite, or(More)
3,4-(+/-)-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are serotonergic neurotoxicants. However, when injected directly into brain, MDA and MDMA are not neurotoxic, suggesting that systemic metabolism plays an important role in the development of neurotoxicity. The nature of the metabolite(s) responsible for MDA- and(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methyl-enedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are widely abused amphetamine derivatives that target the serotonin system. The serotonergic neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA seems dependent on their systemic metabolism. 5-(Glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSyl)-alpha-MeDA] and(More)
alpha-Methyldopamine (alpha-MeDA) is a metabolite of the serotonergic neurotoxicants 3,4-(+/-)-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-(+/-)-(methylenedioxy)methamphetamine (MDMA). alpha-MeDA readily oxidizes, and in the presence of glutathione (GSH) it forms 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA]. Since GSH conjugates(More)
In the present study the effects of a neurotoxic regimen of (+)-MDMA (20 mg/kgx4, s.c.) in 4- and 10-week-old C57Bl/6J mice during treatment and 7 days post-treatment were examined. Rectal temperatures monitored between (+)-MDMA injections (30 min post-injection/2 h intervals) revealed hyperthermic responses in both age groups, with the magnitude of the(More)
3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT), inducing thermogenesis and hyperactivity (5-HT syndrome). The long-term effects of MDMA(More)
The Tsc-2 tumor suppressor gene encodes the protein tuberin, a multi-functional protein with sequence homology to the GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Rap1. Mutations in the Tsc-2 gene are associated with the development of renal tumors. The Eker rat (Tsc-2(EK/+)) bears a mutation in one allele of the Tsc-2 gene, which predisposes these animals to renal(More)
2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a metabolite of benzene, induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. However, the mechanisms by which TGHQ induces apoptosis are unclear, and they were the focus of the present investigation. TGHQ stimulated the rapid formation (30 min) of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HL-60 cells, and(More)