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BACKGROUND There is a clear need to develop an objective diagnostic test for Alzheimer disease (AD). Changes in the levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau protein and beta-amyloid 42 (Abeta42) peptide in patients with AD have been well documented, but the relationship between these biomarkers and neuropathologic changes in the brain is not established. (More)
OBJECTIVE To compare carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients with and without Alzheimer disease lesions in frontal cortical biopsy specimens. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of [11C]PiB PET findings in patients with or without beta-amyloid (Abeta) aggregates in frontal cortical biopsy(More)
The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been proposed to represent a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. We studied the predictive value of the MRI-derived volumes of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, white matter lesions (WML), neuropsychological tests, and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on conversion of MCI to dementia(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphorylation of tau protein at threonine 231 (using full-length tau, 441 amino acids, for the numbering scheme) (p-tau(231)) occurs specifically in postmortem brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and can be sensitively detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). OBJECTIVES To determine to what extent CSF levels of p-tau(231)(More)
We investigated the usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta-amyloid42 (Abeta42), beta-amyloid40 (Abeta40) and tau analyses in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included 41 definite AD cases, 80 patients with probable AD. 27 with other dementias and 39 neurological controls. Abeta42, Abeta340 and tau protein concentrations in CSF were(More)
We measured tau concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken during the lifetime of 43 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlated these values with neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) scores as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression as a marker of astrocytosis in the brain post-mortem. The CSF tau values showed a positive(More)
Earlier studies have shown elevated levels of tau protein and decreased levels of amyloid beta42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the concentrations of Abeta42, Abeta40 and tau in CSF from AD patients on the baseline and after follow-up period of 3 years using ELISA assays. There was a significant(More)
We investigated the role of hippocampal amyloid pathology in spatial learning impairment of a new mouse line carrying mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenes. The APP + PS1 mice were tested in spatial navigation in the water maze and in position discrimination in the T-maze at ages of 3-4 and 11-12 months, before and(More)
The highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is one of the most promising molecules that contributes to plasticity in the central nervous system. We evaluated PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We found significant increases over control levels in the optical density ratios of(More)
We compared beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) levels in the serum, CSF and brain (hippocampus) and correlated these with spatial learning in APP+PS1 transgenic mice. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, male 14-month-old APP + PS1 mice were impaired in spatial learning in the water maze. Among the APP + PS1 mice, only the hippocampal insoluble Abeta42 level(More)