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The Children's Nonword Repetition Test (CNRep) was given 39 children with persistent language impairment (LI), 13 with a history of having received speech-language therapy (resolved LI), and 79 controls, all aged from 7 to 9 years. The children with LI were twins who had participated in a previous genetic study. Children with resolved LI, as well as those(More)
Concordance rates were compared for 63 monozygotic (MZ) and 27 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twin pairs, aged seven years and over, selected because at least one twin met diagnostic criteria for specific speech or language impairment. There was significant heritability for developmental speech and language disorder, defined according to DSM-II-R criteria. When(More)
OBJECTIVES The observed associations between smoking and functional measures at older ages are vulnerable to bias and confounding. Mendelian randomisation (MR) uses genotype as an instrumental variable to estimate unconfounded causal associations. We conducted a meta-analysis of the observational associations and implemented an MR approach using the(More)
BACKGROUND Several recessive Mendelian disorders are common in Europeans, including cystic fibrosis (CFTR), medium-chain-acyl-Co-A-dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), phenylketonuria (PAH) and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (SERPINA1). METHODS In a multicohort study of >19,000 older individuals, we investigated the relevant phenotypes in heterozygotes for(More)
  • C Bartlett, J Flax, M Logue, V Vieland, A Bassett, P Tallal +7 others
  • 2006
References The following references constitute the reading on which I have based the course so far. Additional items may well be added during the term. References marked with an asterisk (*) are particularly important, seminal or approachable. " Does the study of autism justify minimalist innate modularity? " Learning and Individual Differences 10:179-191.(More)
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