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The complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis V583, a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate, revealed that more than a quarter of the genome consists of probable mobile or foreign DNA. One of the predicted mobile elements is a previously unknown vanB vancomycin-resistance conjugative transposon. Three plasmids were identified, including two(More)
Optimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of genetic details may be tested by experimental evolution of a(More)
The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles. Recent ground-based(More)
Artificial networks can be used to identify hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra of complex oligosaccharides. Feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation of errors can distinguish between spectra of oligosaccharides that differ by only one glycosyl residue in twenty. The artificial neural networks use features of the strongly(More)
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