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The terminology for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous lesions of the lower anogenital tract has a long history marked by disparate diagnostic terms derived from multiple specialties. It often does not reflect current knowledge of HPV biology and pathogenesis. A consensus process was convened to recommend terminology unified across lower(More)
Anal cancer may be preceded by anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL), but the natural history of ASIL is poorly understood. In this report, we characterize the 2-year incidence and progression of low-grade SIL (LSIL) and high-grade SIL (HSIL) in a cohort study in 346 HIV-positive and 262 HIV-negative homosexual or bisexual men. Subjects were studied(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to describe the early natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection by examining a cohort of young women positive for an HPV test and to define within this cohort (1) the probability of HPV regression, (2) the risk of having a squamous intraepithelial lesion, and (3) factors that were associated with(More)
CONTEXT Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) have been described as a benign cytological consequence of active human papillomavirus (HPV) replication. Several studies have reported that certain behavioral and biological risks exist for LSIL, suggesting that HPV alone is not sufficient for the development of LSIL. However, because most of these(More)
OBJECTIVE The incidence of anal cancer among homosexual men exceeds that of cervical cancer in women, and HIV-positive homosexual men may be at even higher risk than HIV-negative men. Cervical cancer is preceded by high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL) and anal HSIL may similarly be the precursor to anal cancer. In this study, we describe the(More)
PURPOSE The incidence of anal cancer is increased in men with a history of anal receptive intercourse. Analogous to cervical cancer, whose precursor is cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), anal cancer may be preceded by anal HSIL. Although not yet proven, detection, follow-up, and treatment of HSIL may prevent development of anal(More)
In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe(More)
The role of mucosal immunity in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical diseases is poorly understood. To characterize the local immune microenvironment in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 and determine the effects of HIV infection, we compared samples from three groups: normal cervix, CIN 2/3 from immunocompetent women (HIV- CIN 2/3), and(More)
Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) are common in homosexual and bisexual men, and high-grade ASIL (HSIL) in particular may represent an anal cancer precursor. Cervical cytology is a useful screening tool for detection of cervical HSIL to prevent cervical cancer. To assess anal cytology as a screening tool for anal disease, we compared anal(More)
OBJECTIVES The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about(More)