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Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in nerve, muscle, and other electrically excitable cells. Voltage-gated calcium channels are activated by depolarization during action potentials, and calcium influx through them is the key second messenger of electrical signaling, initiating secretion, contraction, neurotransmission, gene(More)
Ca2+ antagonist drugs are widely used in therapy of cardiovascular disorders. Three chemical classes of drugs bind to three separate, but allosterically interacting, receptor sites on CaV1.2 channels, the most prominent voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channel type in myocytes in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. The 1,4-dihydropyridines are used primarily for(More)
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