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An early response to cigarette smoke is an influx of leukocytes into the lung. Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells may contribute by releasing chemokines in response to cigarette smoke and neutrophil elastase (NE). Human ATII cells were purified from normal regions of lungs resected for carcinoma (n = 14). In vitro, these cells exhibited ATII cell(More)
The recognition of potentially harmful microorganisms involves the specific recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to play a central role in this process. TLR-4 is the major recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls,(More)
Primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells were immortalized by transduction with the catalytic subunit of telomerase and simian virus 40 large-tumor antigen. Characterization by immunochemical and morphologic methods demonstrated an AT1-like cell phenotype. Unlike primary AT2 cells, immortalized cells no longer expressed alkaline phosphatase, pro-surfactant(More)
Eight human isoforms of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) exist, but their individual functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that different human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines overexpress distinct subsets of class I(A) and II PI3Ks, which results in striking differences in the signalling cascades activated by stem cell factor(More)
RATIONALE Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive disease with a dismal prognosis, exhibit an unexplained disparity of increased alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis but reduced fibroblast apoptosis. OBJECTIVES To examine whether the failure of patients with IPF to up-regulate cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and thus the antifibrotic(More)
Highly purified populations of alveolar epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes) were isolated from human lung specimens. These cells were characterised histochemically, by demonstrating the presence of intracellular alkaline phosphatase, and morphologically, by electron microscopic demonstration of lamellar bodies and microvilli. Expression of the epithelial(More)
Elafin, a low molecular-weight proteinase inhibitor, is a member of the recently described trappin gene family. These proteins are thought to play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and are expressed in multiple epithelia. Elafin is found within the lung, and its expression can be induced by inflammatory mediators. The molecular mechanisms(More)
Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) induces proliferation of H-510 and H-69 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. However, the optimal response to FGF-2 was obtained at 10-fold lower concentrations in H-510 cells. This correlated with the selective activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) pathway in H-510, but not(More)
The health effects of particle inhalation including urban air pollution and tobacco smoke comprise a significant public health concern worldwide, although the mechanisms by which inhaled particles cause premature deaths remain undetermined. In this study, we assessed the physicochemical interactions of fine airborne particles (PM(2.5)) and lung lining(More)
The hypothesis, some 30 years ago, that NE was the sole proteolytic agent responsible for the development of emphysema seems naive in retrospect. The availability of technology to measure NE facilitated the early research into the relationship between NE and lung disease. Despite an abundance of information on the activity of NE in the lung, it will(More)