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An early response to cigarette smoke is an influx of leukocytes into the lung. Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells may contribute by releasing chemokines in response to cigarette smoke and neutrophil elastase (NE). Human ATII cells were purified from normal regions of lungs resected for carcinoma (n = 14). In vitro, these cells exhibited ATII cell(More)
Elafin, a low molecular-weight proteinase inhibitor, is a member of the recently described trappin gene family. These proteins are thought to play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and are expressed in multiple epithelia. Elafin is found within the lung, and its expression can be induced by inflammatory mediators. The molecular mechanisms(More)
PURPOSE Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a potential human health hazard, primarily via inhalation. In the lung, alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide the first line of immune cellular defense against inhaled materials. We hypothesized that, 1 and 5 days after treating AMs with short (0.6 μm in length; MWCNT-0.6 μm) and long (20 μm in length; MWCNT-20(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving a wide variety of cells and inflammatory mediators. The most important etiological factor in the development of this disease is cigarette smoking. Much of the research into the mechanisms of COPD has been concerned with the induction of inflammation and the role(More)
It is widely believed that the alveolar epithelium is unresponsive to LPS, in the absence of serum, due to low expression of TLR4 and CD14. Furthermore, the responsiveness of the epithelium to TLR-2 ligands is also poorly understood. We hypothesised that human alveolar type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) epithelial cells were responsive to TLR2 and TLR4 ligands(More)
Lipocortins are structurally related, glucocorticoid-inducible proteins that inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2), thereby reducing the liberation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids and so limiting the synthesis of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators. This study is the first demonstration of one lipocortin, lipocortin 1 (Lc 1; 37 kDa), in human lung lavage(More)
The ability to manipulate the size and surface properties of nanomaterials makes them a promising vector for improving drug delivery and efficacy. Inhalation is a desirable route of administration as nanomaterials preferentially deposit in the alveolar region, a large surface area for drug absorption. However, as yet, the mechanisms by which particles(More)
BACKGROUND The properties of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a potent vascular permogen and mitogen have led to investigation of its potential role in lung injury. Alternate spliced VEGF transcript generates several isoforms with potentially differing functions. The purpose of this study was to determine VEGF isoform expression and source in(More)
Alveolar Type II epithelial cells dedifferentiate rapidly in vitro. Studies with animal tissue suggest that cell-cell and extracellular matrix-cell interactions are important in the retention of Type II cell morphology in vitro. Thus, in this study with human tissue, alveolar Type II cells, alveolar macrophages, and spindle cells were prepared from the same(More)
Particle size and surface chemistry are potential determinants of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) respiratory toxicity that may also depend on the lung inflammatory state. We compared the effects of intratracheally-administered AgNPs (20 nm and 110 nm; polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate-capped; 0.1 mg/Kg) in Brown-Norway (BN) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In(More)