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An early response to cigarette smoke is an influx of leukocytes into the lung. Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells may contribute by releasing chemokines in response to cigarette smoke and neutrophil elastase (NE). Human ATII cells were purified from normal regions of lungs resected for carcinoma (n = 14). In vitro, these cells exhibited ATII cell(More)
Elafin, a low molecular-weight proteinase inhibitor, is a member of the recently described trappin gene family. These proteins are thought to play important roles in the regulation of inflammation and are expressed in multiple epithelia. Elafin is found within the lung, and its expression can be induced by inflammatory mediators. The molecular mechanisms(More)
The health effects of particle inhalation including urban air pollution and tobacco smoke comprise a significant public health concern worldwide, although the mechanisms by which inhaled particles cause premature deaths remain undetermined. In this study, we assessed the physicochemical interactions of fine airborne particles (PM(2.5)) and lung lining(More)
Bacterial colonization is a secondary feature of many lung disorders associated with elevated cytokine levels and increased leukocyte recruitment. We hypothesized that, alongside macrophages, the epithelium would be an important source of these mediators. We investigated the effect of LPS (0, 10, 100, and 1000 ng/ml LPS, up to 24 h) on primary human lung(More)
PURPOSE Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a potential human health hazard, primarily via inhalation. In the lung, alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide the first line of immune cellular defense against inhaled materials. We hypothesized that, 1 and 5 days after treating AMs with short (0.6 μm in length; MWCNT-0.6 μm) and long (20 μm in length; MWCNT-20(More)
Macrophages are long-lived effector cells within the lung. They are reactive, responding to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, as well as proactive, producing mediators that modulate the behavior of surrounding cells. In addition, they play a critical role in the clearance of apoptotic neutrophils. Their role in COPD probably reflects a number of functional(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving a wide variety of cells and inflammatory mediators. The most important etiological factor in the development of this disease is cigarette smoking. Much of the research into the mechanisms of COPD has been concerned with the induction of inflammation and the role(More)
Lipocortins are structurally related, glucocorticoid-inducible proteins that inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2), thereby reducing the liberation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids and so limiting the synthesis of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators. This study is the first demonstration of one lipocortin, lipocortin 1 (Lc 1; 37 kDa), in human lung lavage(More)
It is widely believed that the alveolar epithelium is unresponsive to LPS, in the absence of serum, due to low expression of TLR4 and CD14. Furthermore, the responsiveness of the epithelium to TLR-2 ligands is also poorly understood. We hypothesised that human alveolar type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) epithelial cells were responsive to TLR2 and TLR4 ligands(More)
Under steady state conditions the intracellular pathway is the major route of collagen catabolism in tissues characterised by rapid collagen turnover. In the lung, the collagen is subject to continuous remodelling and turnover however, the intracellular pathway of collagen degradation is unusual under physiological conditions. The current authors previously(More)