Learn More
BACKGROUND Early identification of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) may reduce the risk of death from rupture by providing the opportunity for elective repair. Before a screening policy for AAA is implemented, the growth rates of AAAs and the accompanying risk of rupture without intervention should be established. METHODS The growth rates of AAAs were(More)
BACKGROUND Although the efficacy of mass screening for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with a fecal occult blood test has been demonstrated in several randomized trials, a mass screening approach used in countries with intermediate or low incidence of CRC might be costly. Screening high risk people may be an alternative approach, to aid in the prevention of(More)
BACKGROUND The availability of breast carcinoma data from trials of mammographic screening provides an opportunity to study the natural history of breast carcinoma. METHODS The Swedish Two-County study is a randomized, controlled trial of mammographic screening for breast carcinoma in which 77,080 women were randomized to receive an invitation to(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer detection are constrained by inadequate sensitivity or specificity. Here we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Mcm5, a novel cell cycle biomarker of aberrant growth, alone and in combination with NMP22. METHODS 1677 consecutive patients under investigation for urinary tract malignancy were recruited to a(More)
Evidence regarding the potential benefits of a particular health care intervention is often available from a variety of disparate sources. However, formal synthesis of such evidence has traditionally concentrated almost exclusively on that derived from randomized studies, although for a range of conditions the randomized evidence will be less than adequate(More)
The effectiveness of cancer screening depends crucially on two elements: the sojourn time (that is, the duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period) and the sensitivity of the screening test. Previous literature on methods of estimating mean sojourn time and sensitivity has largely concentrated on breast cancer screening. Screening for colorectal(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms and the implications for an ultrasound screening programme in England and Wales. METHODS First screen data were obtained from the Chichester and Huntingdon screening studies and used to estimate the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The incidence of new, asymptomatic(More)
OBJECTIVES The success of cervical cytology in screening for cervical neoplasia has led to the concept of anal cytology screening for anal neoplasia. Our objective is to study the performance of anal cytology as a screening tool. DESIGN We assessed anal cytology against histology and high-resolution anoscopy in a clinical setting. METHODS Anal pap test(More)
BACKGROUND In the Swedish two-county trial women aged 40-74 years from two counties in Sweden were randomised to invitation to mammographic screening for breast cancer. METHODS This paper uses random effects logistic regression models to analyse recent data from the trial. The analysis accounts for the structure of the trial, where small geographical(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have found that reproductive factors might have a variable effect on the occurrence of breast cancer (BC) according to the existence or not of a family history of BC. The effect of a family history of BC on the risk of BC may also vary according to the age at diagnosis and the degree of kinship. This may confound the relation between(More)