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Wild-type Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. protonemata grow up in the dark by negative gravitropism. When upright wild-type protonemata are reoriented 90 degrees, they temporarily grow down soon after reorientation ("initial reversal") and also prior to cytokinesis ("mitotic reversal"). A positively gravitropic mutant designated wrong- way response (wwr-1)(More)
The authors describe the initial development of the Wagner Assessment Test (WAT), an instrument designed to assess critical thinking, using the 5-faceted view popularized by the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA; G. B. Watson & E. M. Glaser, 1980). The WAT was designed to reduce the degree of successful guessing relative to the WGCTA by(More)
Wild-type (WT) protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus grow upwards in darkness (negative gravitropism), whereas protonemata of the mutant, wrong-way response (wwr-1) grow down. Since Ceratodon protoplasts regenerate to form new protonemata, we analyzed whether the direction of filament emergence was influenced by gravity (gravimorphism) and determined(More)
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