Terence W. Turney

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The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental(More)
Water solubility of zinc (Zn) fertilisers affects their plant availability. Further, simultaneous application of Zn and phosphorus (P) fertiliser can have antagonistic effects on plant Zn uptake. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) can improve plant Zn and P uptake. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to test the effect of different Zn fertiliser materials, in(More)
The usefulness of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles has led to their wide distribution in consumer products, despite only a limited understanding of how this nanomaterial behaves within biological systems. From a nanotoxicological viewpoint the interaction(s) of ZnO nanoparticles with cells of the immune system is of specific interest, as these nanostructures(More)
Although zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely formulated in sunscreens, the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by these particles, zinc ions, and cytotoxicity is not clearly understood. This study explores whether these factors can be accurately quantified and related. The study demonstrates a strong(More)
Significant public and scientific concerns remain for the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial products, particularly those applied topically for skin care. There are currently a range of metal oxides formulated into many sunscreens that are present at the nanoscale. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the size and dispersion of one type(More)
Nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and its toxicology has gained considerable recent attention. A key aspect for controlling biological interactions at the nanoscale is understanding the relevant nanoparticle surface chemistry. In this study, we have determined the disposition of ZnO nanoparticles within(More)
Zinc ions generate a range of poorly soluble Zn-containing nanoparticles when added to commonly used mammalian cell culture media. The formation of these nanoparticles confounds the use of soluble Zn salts as positive controls during cytotoxicity testing of other Zn-containing nanoparticles, such as ZnO. These nanoprecipitates can either be crystalline or(More)
Oxidative damage to cells and tissues from free radicals induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be attenuated by sunscreen components, such as ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Although it is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by cells upon exposure to ZnO and TiO2 NPs, it is unknown to what extent the amount generated is altered(More)
The development of nanoparticles (NPs) for commercial products is undergoing a dramatic expansion. Many sunscreens and cosmetics now use zinc oxide (ZnO) or titania (TiO2) NPs, which are effective ultraviolet (UV) filters. Zinc oxide topical creams are also used in mild anti-inflammatory treatments. In this study we evaluated the effect of size and(More)
An important part of assessing the toxic potential of nanoparticles for specific applications should be the direct comparison of biological activities with those of alternative materials for the same application. Nanoparticulate inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filters, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), are commonly incorporated into transparent sunscreen and cosmetic(More)