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Recent 13C NMR studies in rat models have shown that the glutamate/glutamine cycle is highly active in the cerebral cortex and is coupled to incremental glucose oxidation in an approximately 1:1 stoichiometry. To determine whether a high level of glutamatergic activity is present in human cortex, the rates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glutamine(More)
Comprehensive and quantitative measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation times of water, metabolites, and macromolecules in rat brain under similar experimental conditions at three high magnetic field strengths (4.0 T, 9.4 T, and 11.7 T) are presented. Water relaxation showed a highly significant increase (T1) and decrease (T2) with increasing field strength for(More)
MR imaging and spectroscopy allow the noninvasive measurement of brain function and physiology, but excellent magnetic field homogeneity is required for meaningful results. The homogenization of the magnetic field distribution in the mouse brain (i.e., shimming) is a difficult task due to complex susceptibility-induced field distortions combined with the(More)
A limitation of previous methods for studying human brain glucose metabolism, such as positron emission tomography, is that metabolic steps beyond glucose uptake cannot be studied. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the advantage of allowing the nondestructive measurement of 13C distribution in specific carbon positions of metabolites. In this study(More)
A set of generic, circular individual coils is shown to be capable of generating highly complex magnetic field distributions in a flexible fashion. Arbitrarily oriented linear field gradients can be generated in three-dimensional as well as sliced volumes at amplitudes that allow imaging applications. The multi-coil approach permits the simultaneous(More)
High quality magnetic field homogenization of the human brain (i.e. shimming) for MR imaging and spectroscopy is a demanding task. The susceptibility differences between air and tissue are a longstanding problem as they induce complex field distortions in the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes. To date, the theoretical gains of high field MR have only(More)
INTRODUCTION: The homogenization of magnetic field distributions in the mouse brain is a difficult task. Air-tissue interfaces, such as the one between the auditory cavities and the brain, create strong, localized and complex magnetic field distortions. Conventional, low order spherical harmonics shimming is able to compensate for large-scale, shallow field(More)
Dynamic alteration of shim settings during a multi-slice imaging experiment can improve static magnetic-field homogeneity over extended volumes. In this report, a pre-emphasized dynamic shim updating (DSU) system capable of rapidly updating all non-degenerate zeroth through second-order shims is presented and applied to high-field multi-slice imaging(More)
Dynamic shim updating (DSU) is a technique for achieving optimal magnetic field homogeneity over extended volumes by dynamically updating an optimal shim setting for each individual slice in a multislice acquisition protocol. Here the practical implementation of DSU using all first- and second-order shims is described. In particular, the hardware(More)
The static magnetic field within two widely spaced axial slices of the human brain was mapped in five subjects following global shimming. This revealed a first order field shift in the anterior-posterior direction between the cerebellum and cerebrum, which has implications for functional and spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging. A new method is(More)