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Patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy and well-defined symptomatic MRI lesions were studied using phase-encoded frequency spectral analysis (PEFSA) combined with low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Ten patients admitted to the epilepsy monitoring unit with MRI-identified lesions and intractable partial epilepsy were studied(More)
Traditional side-by-side visual interpretation of ictal and interictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans can be difficult in identifying the surgical focus, particularly in patients with extratemporal or otherwise unlocalized intractable epilepsy. Computer-aided subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) may improve the(More)
BACKGROUND The psychotomimetics ketamine and MK-801, non-competitive NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonists, induce cognitive impairment and aggravate schizophrenia symptoms. In conscious rats, they produce an abnormal behavior associated with a peculiar brain state characterized by increased synchronization in ongoing gamma (30-80 Hz) oscillations in the(More)
Scalp-recorded EEG is a noninvasive and widely available tool for studying normal and dysfunctional human neurophysiology with unsurpassed temporal resolution. However, scalp-recorded EEG data is difficult to correlate with anatomy, and most current display and neural source estimation algorithms are based on unrealistic spherical or elliptical models of(More)
UNLABELLED Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a high incidence of long-term neurologic and neuropsychiatric morbidity. Metabolic and structural changes in rat brains were assessed after TBI using serial (18)F-FDG PET and 3-dimensional MRI in vivo. METHODS Rats underwent lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI; n = 16) or a sham procedure (n = 11). PET and MR(More)
PURPOSE Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a proportion of traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, significantly compounding the disability, and risk of injury and death for sufferers. To date, predictive biomarkers for PTE have not been identified. This study used the lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) rat model of TBI to investigate whether(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders for which the cause is often unknown. Here we report a screen for de novo mutations in patients with two classical epileptic encephalopathies: infantile spasms (n = 149) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (n = 115). We sequenced the exomes of 264 probands, and their parents,(More)
PURPOSE Despite accurate localization of the seizure focus, not all patients are seizure free after temporal lobectomy. This study determined risk factors for seizure recurrence in patients with proven hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS The outcome from surgery was assessed in 56 consecutive patients with proven hippocampal sclerosis. The age at surgery,(More)
Most patients with non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (NLTLE) will have the findings of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) on a high resolution MRI. However, a significant minority of patients with NLTLE and electroclinically well-lateralized temporal lobe seizures have no evidence of HS on MRI. Many of these patients have concordant hypometabolism on(More)
BACKGROUND Most women with epilepsy need to take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy to prevent the potentially harmful effects of seizures. Retrospective studies have demonstrated an increased chance of having a child with a birth defect (BD) in women with epilepsy taking AEDs. It is uncertain how much of this risk is directly caused by the AEDs and(More)