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OBJECTIVE To assess whether supplementation with calcium and cholecaliferol (vitamin D3) reduces the risk of fracture in women with one or more risk factors for fracture of the hip. DESIGN Pragmatic open randomised controlled trial. SETTING Practice nurse led clinics in primary care. PARTICIPANTS 3314 women aged 70 and over with one or more risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, detection, treatment and control of hypertension in an urban and rural area of Tanzania. DESIGN Two linked cross-sectional population-based surveys. SETTING A middle-income urban district of Dar es Salaam (Ilala) and a village in the relatively prosperous rural area of Kilimanjaro (Shari). PARTICIPANTS Seven(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate and compare physical activity patterns of urban and rural dwellers in Cameroon, and study their relationship with obesity, diabetes and hypertension. METHODS We studied 2465 subjects aged >or=15 y, recruited on the basis of a random sampling of households, of whom 1183 were urban dwellers from Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to assess the association between lifetime exposure to urban environment (EU) and obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in an adult population of Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS We studied 999 women and 727 men aged > or =25 years. They represent all the adults aged > or =25 years living in households randomly selected from a rural(More)
BACKGROUND Bisphosphonates are currently among the most effective therapies for the treatment of osteoporosis and provide one of the mainstays of treatment in the UK. However studies in several countries have all reported sub-optimal compliance and persistence with treatment. OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of dosing frequency on compliance and(More)
Osteoporosis is reported to be rare in Black Africa. The low fracture incidence among North American black women is explained by a high peak bone mass and preservation of bone mineral into old age. To assess whether this is the case among Black African women, we measured bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), using single- and(More)
This review article examines the epidemiology and pathogenesis of back pain and vertebral fractures in osteoporosis, reviewing the management of pain in patients with vertebral fractures and the direct and indirect effect of osteoporosis treatments on back pain. The management of patients with vertebral fractures has largely concentrated on the prevention(More)
There is no doubt that communicable diseases will remain the predominant health problem for the populations in sub-Saharan Africa, including adults, for the next 10-20 years. Concern has been expressed that the available resources to deal with this problem would be reduced by increasing the emphasis on noncommunicable diseases. The latter, however, already(More)
A population-based survey in 1996 and 1997 of 770 adults (aged > or = 15 years) from an urban district of Dares Salaam and 928 from a village in rural Kilimanjaro district (Tanzania) revealed that the prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity was higher in the urban area for men and women. The(More)
Objective To assess whether supplementation with calcium and cholecaliferol (vitamin D 3) reduces the risk of fracture in women with one or more risk factors for fracture of the hip. Design Pragmatic open randomised controlled trial. Setting Practice nurse led clinics in primary care. Participants 3314 women aged 70 and over with one or more risk factors(More)