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BACKGROUND Questions remain about the long-term health impacts of the 1991 Gulf War on its veterans. AIMS To measure psychological disorders in Australian Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group and to explore any association with exposure to Gulf War-related psychological stressors. METHOD Prevalences of DSM-IV psychological disorders were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the population-based prevalence of diabetes and other categories of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) in Australia and to compare the prevalence with previous Australian data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A national sample involving 11,247 participants aged > or =25 years living(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether past high sun exposure is associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis. DESIGN Population based case-control study. SETTING Tasmania, latitudes 41-3 degrees S. PARTICIPANTS 136 cases with multiple sclerosis and 272 controls randomly drawn from the community and matched on sex and year of birth. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
Adequate 25(OH)D levels are required to prevent adverse effects on bone health. Population-based data on factors associated with 25(OH)D levels of people with MS have been lacking. Objectives To examine the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in a population-based sample of MS cases and controls, and to compare 25(OH)D status between MS(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. The relationship between milder elevations of blood glucose and mortality is less clear. This study investigated whether impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as diabetes mellitus, increase the risk of all-cause and CVD(More)
BACKGROUND The long-term effects of skipping breakfast on cardiometabolic health are not well understood. OBJECTIVE The objective was to examine longitudinal associations of breakfast skipping in childhood and adulthood with cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. DESIGN In 1985, a national sample of 9-15-y-old Australian children reported whether(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake can result in vitamin D insufficiency. However, limited data are available on actual vitamin D status and predictors in healthy individuals in different regions and by season. METHODS We compared vitamin D status [25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D] in people < 60 years of age using data from(More)
BACKGROUND Monthly variation in multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses has been found. The relationship between seasonal environmental factors, infections, serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] and MS relapses is undetermined. METHODS We prospectively followed a population-based cohort of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients in Southern Tasmania for a mean 2.3 years(More)
Twin studies have long been recognized for their value in learning about the aetiology of disease and specifically for their potential for separating genetic effects from environmental effects. The recent upsurge of interest in life-course epidemiology and the study of developmental influences on later health has provided a new impetus to study twins as a(More)
The aim of this study was to conduct an ecological analysis of the extent to which ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels might explain the regional variation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Australia. MS prevalence data for six Australian regions were compared with UVR levels of the largest city in each region, with some other climatic variables and with the(More)