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Spontaneous seizures are the hallmark of human epilepsy but they do not occur in most of the epilepsy models that are used to investigate the mechanisms of epilepsy or to test new antiepileptic compounds. This study was designed to develop a new focal epilepsy model that mimics different aspects of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including the(More)
The present study was designed to elucidate the distribution, time-course and mechanism(s) of status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage in the rat amygdaloid complex. Status epilepticus was induced with kainate (9 mg/kg, i.p.), and the behavioral and electrographic seizure activity of each rat was monitored via cortical electrodes attached to a continuous(More)
In human epilepsy, the amygdala is often a primary focus for seizures. To analyse the status epilepticus-induced alterations in the amygdaloid circuitries which may later underlie epileptogenesis, we studied the amygdaloid damage in kainic acid and perforant pathway stimulation models of status epilepticus in the rat. We also studied the damage to(More)
Neurons containing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase exhibit high resistance to several excitotoxins. In the neocortex and striatum, however, these neurons are sensitive to kainic acid. Here we report that, 2 weeks after i.p. injection of kainic acid, the number of NADPH diaphorase neurons in the hilus and CA1 subfield was(More)
We evaluated the effect of initial oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy on memory, attention and simple psychomotor speed in 14 patients; 15 patients with initial phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy served as reference patients. Neuropsychological assessments were performed before starting the treatment and after 6 and 12 months follow-up with steady-state drug(More)
The antiepileptic efficacy and side-effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC), a new carbamazepine derivate, were evaluated in a double-blind study. Forty ambulatory epileptics with unsatisfactory seizure control or unwanted effects due to phenytoin monotherapy were changed to OXC or carbamazepine (CBZ) and were then followed for 48-50 weeks. Thirty-four of the(More)
Selective neuronal damage and mossy fiber sprouting may underlie epileptogenesis and spontaneous seizure generation in the epileptic hippocampus. It may be beneficial to prevent their development after cerebral insults that are known to be associated with a high risk of epilepsy later in life in humans. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic(More)
The effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid), a new anticonvulsant drug, on the transmitter amino acids in rat cisternal CSF was studied. CSF was collected through a permanently implanted polyethylene cannula from freely moving rats at 5, 24, 48, and 96 h after administration of 1,000 mg/kg of vigabatrin. The free gamma-aminobutyric acid(More)
In human temporal lobe epilepsy, seizures can begin in the hippocampus, amygdala, or surrounding cortical areas. Histologically, the seizure-induced selective neuronal damage and synaptic reorganization are best documented in the hippocampus. Little information is available about the damage in the other temporal lobe structures or whether the distribution(More)
We studied the neuroprotective effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl GABA, VGB) in the rat hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE) induced by kainic acid (KA). Rats were treated with VGB (500 or 1000 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h before KA injection (9 mg/kg, i.p.). The lower dose of VGB had no effect on the generation or severity of convulsions. However, VGB decreased(More)