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Pyruvate serves as a metabolic precursor for many plastid-localized biosynthetic pathways, such as those for fatty acids, terpenoids and branched-chain amino acids. In spite of the importance of pyruvate uptake into plastids (organelles within cells of plants and algae), the molecular mechanisms of this uptake have not yet been explored. This is mainly(More)
Posttranslational modifications play important roles in regulating protein structure and function. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a mostly cytoplasmic class II HDAC, which has a unique structure with two catalytic domains and a domain binding ubiquitin with high affinity. This enzyme was recently identified as a multisubstrate protein deacetylase that can(More)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are major epigenetic regulators. We show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 functions are critical for myelination of the peripheral nervous system. Using mouse genetics, we have ablated Hdac1 and Hdac2 specifically in Schwann cells, resulting in massive Schwann cell loss and virtual absence of myelin in mutant sciatic nerves. Expression of(More)
The transcriptional activators Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog cooperate with a wide array of cofactors to orchestrate an embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific gene expression program that forms the molecular basis of pluripotency. Here, we report using an unbiased in vitro transcription-biochemical complementation assay to discover a multisubunit stem cell coactivator(More)
Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) play pivotal roles in stabilizing IGFs and regulating their availability to target tissues. In the teleost circulation, three major IGFBPs are typically detected by ligand blotting with molecular masses around 20-25, 28-32 and 40-45kDa. However, their identity is poorly established and often(More)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by deacetylating histones and also modulate the acetylation of a number of nonhistone proteins, thus impinging on various cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the major class I enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2 in primary mouse fibroblasts and in the B-cell lineage. Fibroblasts lacking both enzymes fail to(More)
Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), originate from multipotent neural crest cells that also give rise to other cells, including neurons, melanocytes, chondrocytes, and smooth muscle cells. The transcription factor Sox10 is required for peripheral glia specification. However, all neural crest cells express Sox10 and(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells, like all cell types, are defined by their unique transcriptional signatures. The ability of ES cells to self-renew or exit the pluripotent state and enter differentiation requires extensive changes in their transcriptome and epigenome. Remarkably, transcriptional programs governing each cell fate must remain sufficiently malleable(More)
The mechanism of ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of cell surface proteins is not completely understood. Here we examine the role of the ankyrin repeat domain (Ankrd) 13A, 13B, and 13D proteins, which constitute a functionally unknown family of ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM)-bearing proteins, in the process. Stimulation of human HeLa cells with epidermal(More)
Emerging evidence points to an unexpected diversification of core promoter recognition complexes that serve as important regulators of cell-type specific gene transcription. Here, we report that the orphan TBP-associated factor TAF9B is selectively up-regulated upon in vitro motor neuron differentiation, and is required for the transcriptional induction of(More)