Learn More
Allelic sequence variation has been analysed by synthetic oligonucleotide hybridization probes which can detect single base substitutions in human genomic DNA. An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) will only anneal to sequences that match it perfectly, a single mismatch being sufficient to prevent hybridization under appropriate conditions. To improve(More)
An underlying complex genetic susceptibility exists in multiple sclerosis (MS), and an association with the HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype has been repeatedly demonstrated in high-risk (northern European) populations. It is unknown whether the effect is explained by the HLA-DRB1 or the HLA-DQB1 gene within the susceptibility haplotype, which are in(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease with a complex genetic component. An association between RA and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex has long been observed in many different populations, and most studies have focused on a direct role for the HLA-DRB1 "shared epitope" in disease susceptibility. We have performed an extensive(More)
OBJECTIVE Specific alleles of non-HLA genes INS, CTLA-4, and PTPN22 have been associated with type 1 diabetes. We examined whether some of these alleles influence development of islet autoimmunity or progression from persistent islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes in children with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Since 1993, the(More)
Approximately 50% of the genetic risk for type 1 diabetes is attributable to the HLA region. We evaluated associations between candidate genes outside the HLA region-INS, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-4R, and IL-13 and islet autoimmunity among children participating in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young(More)
Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disease of the intestinal mucosa, elicited by ingestion of wheat gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Susceptibility to coeliac disease has been associated with the serologically defined variants DR3 and DR7 of the class II antigens encoded by the HLA-D region. Three related class II antigens, each consisting of an(More)
Levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) vary among different first degree relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, suggesting genetic regulation. We previously reported elevated IAA among DR4-positive at risk relatives. In this study, 72/82 at risk relatives were IAA positive, of whom 75% (54/72) carried DR4 versus 20% (2/10) of(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a functional deletion of SMN1 on Chromosome 5, which leads to a progressive loss of motor function in affected patients. SMA patients have at least one copy of a similar gene, SMN2, which produces functional SMN protein, although in reduced quantities. The severity of SMA is variable, partially due to differences in SMN2(More)
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is a sporadic autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle stiffness with painful spasms and usually a high level of GAD65 antibody. The authors report familial SPS associated with GAD65 antibody. The clinical presentations were disparate; the father had an appendicular form of SPS and the daughter's axial SPS presented with(More)
  • 1