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BACKGROUND Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria). The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the primary risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoke exposure, vitamin D deficiency has been epidemiologically implicated as a factor in the progressive development of COPD-associated emphysema. Because of difficulties inherent to studies involving(More)
Poor school-functioning can be indicative of parent and adolescent mental health and adolescent behavior problems. This study examined 472 adolescents enrolled in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, with a two-step path analysis, using regression-based models, to unravel the relationships between parent and adolescent mental health, adolescent(More)
Smokers and individuals exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke have a higher risk of developing chronic sinus and bronchial infections. This suggests that cigarette smoke (CS) has adverse effects on immune defenses against pathogens. Epithelial cells are important in airway innate immunity and are the first line of defense against infection. Airway(More)
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