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By itself, the absolute distance of an object cannot be accurately judged beyond 2-3 m (refs 1-3). Yet, when it is viewed with reference to a flat terrain, humans accurately judge the absolute distance of the object up to 20 m, an ability that is important for various actions. Here we provide evidence that this is accomplished by integrating local patches(More)
A biological system is often more efficient when it takes advantage of the regularities in its environment. Like other terrestrial creatures, our spatial sense relies on the regularities associated with the ground surface. A simple, but important, ecological fact is that the field of view of the ground surface extends upwards from near (feet) to infinity(More)
Correct judgment of egocentric/absolute distance in the intermediate distance range requires both the angular declination below the horizon and ground-surface information being represented accurately. This requirement can be met in the light environment but not in the dark, where the ground surface is invisible and hence cannot be represented accurately. We(More)
Mathematically, three-dimensional space can be represented differently by the cartesian, polar, and other coordinate systems. However, in physical sciences, the choice of representation system is restricted by the need to simplify a machine's computation while enhancing its efficiency. Does the brain, for the same reasons, 'select' the most cost-efficient(More)
Psychophysical increment thresholds were compared for periods of phenomenological dominance or suppression produced by different stimulation of the two eyes. Three experimental procedures were used; binocular rivalry, permanent suppression and flash suppression. The amount of suppression produced by each procedure was evaluated under conditions intended to(More)
BACKGROUND Sensory eye dominance is revealed in tasks like the Red Lens test and binocular rivalry. To understand its neural basis, we used a new protocol based on binocular rivalry to quantify its consequent interocular imbalance. Then we investigated whether the extent or sign of interocular imbalance is correlated with the difference in monocular(More)
When dissimilar visual scenes are viewed dichoptically, the observer perceives several different representations of the scene over time. To reveal that a distributed intercortical network mediates this phenomenon of binocular rivalry, we used a Kanizsa square-like display consisting of four pairs of color-rivalry-inducing elements. We found that when all(More)