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A biological system is often more efficient when it takes advantage of the regularities in its environment. Like other terrestrial creatures, our spatial sense relies on the regularities associated with the ground surface. A simple, but important, ecological fact is that the field of view of the ground surface extends upwards from near (feet) to infinity(More)
By itself, the absolute distance of an object cannot be accurately judged beyond 2-3 m (refs 1-3). Yet, when it is viewed with reference to a flat terrain, humans accurately judge the absolute distance of the object up to 20 m, an ability that is important for various actions. Here we provide evidence that this is accomplished by integrating local patches(More)
Correct judgment of egocentric/absolute distance in the intermediate distance range requires both the angular declination below the horizon and ground-surface information being represented accurately. This requirement can be met in the light environment but not in the dark, where the ground surface is invisible and hence cannot be represented accurately. We(More)
Almost all individuals exhibit sensory eye dominance, one neural basis of which is unequal interocular inhibition. Sensory eye dominance can impair binocular functions that depend on both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. We developed a 'push-pull' perceptual learning protocol that simultaneously affects the excitatory and inhibitory networks to reduce(More)
Psychophysical increment thresholds were compared for periods of phenomenological dominance or suppression produced by different stimulation of the two eyes. Three experimental procedures were used; binocular rivalry, permanent suppression and flash suppression. The amount of suppression produced by each procedure was evaluated under conditions intended to(More)