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NCAM polysialylation plays a critical role in neuronal development and regeneration. Polysialylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is catalyzed by two polysialyltransferases, ST8Sia II (STX) and ST8Sia IV (PST), which contain sialylmotifs L and S conserved in all members of the sialyltransferases. The members of the ST8Sia gene family,(More)
Core 2 beta1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (C2GnT-I) plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of mucin-type O-glycans that serve as ligands in cell adhesion. To elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme for use in computer-aided design of therapeutically relevant enzyme inhibitors, we investigated the participation of cysteine residues(More)
Cell surface proteins have been shown to be effective therapeutic targets. In addition, shed forms of these proteins and secreted proteins can serve as biomarkers for diseases, including cancer. Thus, identification of cell surface and secreted proteins has been a prime area of interest in the proteomics field. Most cell surface and secreted proteins are(More)
Membrane proteins are critical for normal cellular differentiation and function, and alterations in these proteins often leads to cell dysfunction and disease. Membrane proteomics aims to identify the membrane protein constituents, their posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and dynamics. Efforts to identify membrane proteins and(More)
Phytochelatins (PCs, also known as class III metallothioneins), a family of sulfhydryl-rich peptides with the formula (gamma-GluCys)(n)Gly(Pc(n), n = 2-11), are induced in plants, yeast and fungi exposed to heavy metals, and are thought to detoxify metals by forming PC- metal complexes. Although PCs have been detected, PC- metal complexes have not been well(More)
Significant progress has been made in discovering and cloning a host of proteins, including a range of glycoproteins. The availability of their predicted amino acid sequences provides useful information, including potential N-linked glycosylation sites. However, only a limited number of protein structures have been solved, and very little is known about the(More)
GM2 synthase is a homodimer in which the subunits are joined by lumenal domain disulfide bond(s). To define the disulfide bond pattern of this enzyme, we analyzed a soluble form by chemical fragmentation, enzymatic digestion, and mass spectrometry and a full-length form by site-directed mutagenesis. All Cys residues of the lumenal domain of GM2 synthase are(More)
Identification of glycosylated proteins, especially those in the plasma membrane, has the potential of defining diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets as well as increasing our understanding of changes occurring in the glycoproteome during normal differentiation and disease processes. Although many cellular proteins are glycosylated they are rarely(More)
Human serum albumin (HSA) was subjected to oxidative stress and the locations of the resulting protein carbonyls were determined using mass spectrometry in conjunction with a hydrazide labeling scheme. To model oxidative stress, HSA samples were subjected to metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) conditions or treated with hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Oxidation led(More)
Human alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases (FucTs) contain four highly conserved cysteine (Cys) residues, in addition to a free Cys residue that lies near the binding site for GDP-fucose (Holmes, E. H., Xu, Z. , Sherwood, A. L., and Macher, B. A. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8145-8151). The participation of the highly conserved Cys residues in disulfide bonds and(More)