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Modestly elevated baseline concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute phase protein, are associated with the long-term risk of coronary heart disease in general populations, whilst the major acute phase response of CRP following myocardial infarction is associated with death and cardiac complications. The pathogenic and clinical(More)
Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context of multiple genetic markers measured in multiple studies, based(More)
In a pedigree with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease we identified a 144-bp insertion in the open reading frame of the prion protein (PrP) gene. The insertion is in-frame and codes for 6 extra uninterrupted octapeptide repeats in addition to the 5 that are normally present in the N-terminal region of the protein. The possibility that this mutation may prove(More)
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was developed with cyclosporine as a fixed-dose immunosuppressant. More recent data indicate a relationship between mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure in individuals and clinical endpoints of rejection and toxicity. This 2-year, open-label, randomized, multicenter trial compared the efficacy and safety of concentration-controlled(More)
This randomized, pilot study compared the Janus kinase inhibitor CP-690,550 (15 mg BID [CP15] and 30 mg BID [CP30], n = 20 each) with tacrolimus (n = 21) in de novo kidney allograft recipients. Patients received an IL-2 receptor antagonist, concomitant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids. CP-690,550 doses were reduced after 6 months. Due to a(More)
Genealogical and molecular studies were carried out in four families in which early onset dementia is inherited as an autosomal dominant. These studies indicated that the four families derive from four siblings whose parents were born in the late 18th century in South-East England. The disease was found to be closely linked to a 144 bp insertion within the(More)
Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using(More)
Responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents can change MR image contrast in response to a molecular biomarker. Quantitative detection of the biomarker requires an accounting of the other effects that may alter MR image contrast, such as a change in the agent's concentration, magnetic field variations, and hardware sensitivity profiles. A(More)
The polymerase chain reaction was used to screen DNA samples from 12 unrelated individuals with various familial dementias and ataxias for mutation in part of the prion protein (PrP) gene, an abnormality that occurs in individuals with the spongiform encephalopathies, Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 2 members of a family(More)
A number of mutations have been demonstrated in the open reading frame (ORF) of the prion protein (PrP) gene in patients with familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome. On the basis of detecting an insertion in the ORF of the PrP gene in a patient originally suspected to be suffering from familial Alzheimer-type dementia, we(More)