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It has been suggested that immune-pressure-mediated positive selection operates to maintain the antigenic polymorphism on the third variable (V3) loop of the gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here we present evidence, on the basis of sequencing 147 independently cloned env C2/V3 segments from a single family (father, mother, and their(More)
Among the 10 subtypes of the M group of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, subtype C is the most prevalent in India and may dominate worldwide in the near future; however, there has been no report on the infectious DNA clone of this subtype. We have isolated an infectious DNA clone of the 93IN101 strain of HIV-1 subtype C, which was isolated in India in(More)
A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype E (CRF01_AE) variant (99JP-NH3-II) possessing an in-frame 33-nucleotide insertion mutation in the beta3-beta4 loop coding region of the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene was isolated from a patient who had not responded to nucleoside analogue RT inhibitors. This virus exhibited an extremely high level of(More)
In a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individual, immune-pressure-mediated positive selection operates to maintain the antigenic polymorphism on the gp120 third variable (V3) loop. Recently, we suggested on the basis of sequencing C2/V3 segments from an HIV-1 subtype E-infected family that a V3 sequence lineage group of the(More)
BACKGROUND In March 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A(H1N1)pdm) emerged in Mexico and the United States. In Japan, since the first outbreak of A(H1N1)pdm in Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures occurred in the middle of May 2009, the virus had spread over 16 of 47 prefectures as of June 4, 2009. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyzed all-segment concatenated(More)
HIV vaccine development has been hampered by issues such as undefined correlates of protection and extensive diversity of HIV. We addressed these issues using a previously established SIV-macaque model in which SIV mutants with deletions of multiple gp120 N-glycans function as potent live attenuated vaccines to induce near-sterile immunity against the(More)
Molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted among injecting drug users (IDUs) (n = 11) and heterosexuals (n = 15) in Kunming, Yunnan Province of China. HIV-1 genotypes were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of 2.6-kb gag-RT region. The distribution of genotypes among IDUs was as follows: CRF07_BC (5/11) and CRF08_BC (5/11); subtype B'(More)
The major routes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japan has been mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and blood transfusion. However, HBV cases transmitted through sexual contact are increasing, especially among HIV-1-seropositive patients. To understand the molecular epidemiology of HBV in HBV/HIV-1 coinfection, we analyzed HBV genotypes and HIV-1(More)
We investigated the current molecular epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia, a country with very low incidence of HIV-1 though with rapid expansion in recent years. HIV-1 pol (1065 nt) and env (447 nt) genes were sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. The evolutionary rates, molecular clock phylogenies, and other evolutionary parameters were(More)
According to the rate of depletion of CD4 cell counts, we grouped 12 cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection as 6 rapid (21.0 to 33.8 cells per microl per month) and 6 slow (0.9 to 7.9 cells per microl per month) progressors and determined the individual viral quasispecies patterns by sequencing the genome region encoding the V1, V2,(More)