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The detailed mechanism of how the ribosome decodes protein sequence information with an abnormally high accuracy, after 40 years of study, remains elusive. A critical element in selecting correct transfer RNA (tRNA) transferring correct amino acid is "induced fit" between the ribosome and tRNA. By using single-molecule methods, the induced fit mechanism is(More)
We have cloned, expressed, and characterized two naturally occurring variations of the IgG-binding domain of streptococcal protein G. The domain is a stable cooperative folding unit of 56 amino acids, which maintains a unique folded structure without disulfide cross-links or tight ligand binding. We have studied the thermodynamics of the unfolding reaction(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), has been shown to increase potently the permeability of endothelium and is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of VEGF/VPF in breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Very little is known about the role of endothelial(More)
In this study, we have characterized the signaling pathways mediated by CXCR4 in breast cancer cells and its role in breast cancer cell invasion and migration. Stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha; CXCL12) stimulation of breast cancer cells resulted in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) activation, AKT phosphorylation, and activation of the FKHRL1(More)
BACKGROUND While vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast tumors has been correlated with a poor outcome in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, the expression, localization, and function of VEGF receptors VEGFR1 (also known as FLT1) and VEGFR2 (also known as KDR or FLK1), as well as neuropilin 1 (NRP1), in breast cancer are(More)
The ribosome is a molecular machine that translates the genetic code contained in the messenger RNA into an amino acid sequence through repetitive cycles of transfer RNA selection, peptide bond formation and translocation. Here we demonstrate an optical tweezer assay to measure the rupture force between a single ribosome complex and mRNA. The rupture force(More)
Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 predispose individuals to breast and ovarian cancers. We observed a novel endogenous association of BRCA1 with Nmi (N-Myc-interacting protein) in breast cancer cells. Nmi was found to interact specifically with BRCA1, both in vitro and in vivo, by binding to two major domains in BRCA1, amino acid residues 298-683 and 1301-1863.(More)
Hidden Markov models (HMM) have been proposed as a method of analysis for noisy single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM FRET) data. However, there are practical and fundamental limits in applying HMM to SM FRET data due to the short photobleaching lifetimes of fluorophores and the limited time resolution of detection devices. The fast(More)
RATIONALE Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has been intensively studied by a variety of reprogramming methods, but the molecular and functional properties of the cells differentiated from iPS cells have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE To address this issue, we generated iPS cells from human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells(More)
The precise role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in regulating integrins in brain microvascular endothelial cells is unknown. Here, we analyzed VEGF effects on integrin expression and activation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). Using human cDNA arrays and ribonuclease (RNase) protection assays, we observed that VEGF(More)