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The distribution of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) neurons was studied in the brain of the common marmoset by using immunohistochemistry. ChAT-IR neurons were found in the medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limb nuclei of the diagonal band, the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental(More)
The effects of ibotenic acid-induced lesions of the ventral pallidum/substantia innominata region, the dorsal pallidum or both on the acquisition and retention of a conditional visual discrimination have been studied in the rat. Lesions of the ventral pallidum and large lesions of the dorsal and ventral pallidum severely impaired both the acquisition and(More)
Visual program simulation (VPS) is a form of interactive program visualization in which novice programmers practice tracing computer programs: using a graphical interface, they are expected to correctly indicate each consecutive stage in the execution of a given program. Naturally, students make mistakes during VPS; in this article, we report a study of(More)
Computer science educators are increasingly using interactive learning content to enrich and enhance the pedagogy of their courses. A plethora of such learning content, specifically designed for computer science education, such as visualization, simulation, and web-based environments for learning programming, are now available for various courses. We call(More)
We investigated students' use of program visualizations (PVs) that were tightly integrated into the electronic book of an introductory course on programming. A quantitative analysis of logs showed that most students, and beginners especially, used the PVs, even where the PV did not directly affect their grade. Students commonly spent more time studying(More)
We discuss uses of <i>embedded computing questions</i> (ECQs) in interactive electronic textbooks on programming, identifying a non-exhaustive list of three main categories of ECQs and nine subcategories. The main categories are: ECQs that introduce content, ECQs that reinforce learning, and ECQs that highlight content. We provide examples from an existing(More)
Code examples are commonly used learning resources that help students grasp various programming structures and concepts. However, example code usually requires explanations about what each line or part of the code does. Otherwise, students may find it difficult to follow an example. In this paper, we compare two types of code examples that use different(More)