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The distribution of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (ChAT-IR) neurons was studied in the brain of the common marmoset by using immunohistochemistry. ChAT-IR neurons were found in the medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limb nuclei of the diagonal band, the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental(More)
This paper describes UUhistle, a highly interactive program visualization system for introductory programming courses. UUhistle's main novelty is its support for visual program simulation exercises, in which the student takes the role of the computer as executor of a program in order to learn about program dynamics and to demonstrate their understanding.(More)
The effects of ibotenic acid-induced lesions of the ventral pallidum/substantia innominata region, the dorsal pallidum or both on the acquisition and retention of a conditional visual discrimination have been studied in the rat. Lesions of the ventral pallidum and large lesions of the dorsal and ventral pallidum severely impaired both the acquisition and(More)
Visual program simulation (VPS) is a form of interactive program visualization in which novice programmers practice tracing computer programs: using a graphical interface, they are expected to correctly indicate each consecutive stage in the execution of a given program. Naturally, students make mistakes during VPS; in this article, we report a study of(More)
Computer science educators are increasingly using interactive learning content to enrich and enhance the pedagogy of their courses. A plethora of such learning content, specifically designed for computer science education, such as visualization, simulation, and web-based environments for learning programming, are now available for various courses. We call(More)
We investigated students' use of program visualizations (PVs) that were tightly integrated into the electronic book of an introductory course on programming. A quantitative analysis of logs showed that most students, and beginners especially, used the PVs, even where the PV did not directly affect their grade. Students commonly spent more time studying(More)
We discuss uses of <i>embedded computing questions</i> (ECQs) in interactive electronic textbooks on programming, identifying a non-exhaustive list of three main categories of ECQs and nine subcategories. The main categories are: ECQs that introduce content, ECQs that reinforce learning, and ECQs that highlight content. We provide examples from an existing(More)
Lic.sc. (Tech) Juha Sorva Learning to program has many challenges. If a student encounters problems of understanding how the programming language works or how a program is executed, it might be hard to fix these misconceptions later. These misconceptions may also make it hard to learn more complicated concepts if the student does not understand the basics(More)