Learn More
HIV-1 Nef interacts with cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes and their medium (mu) subunits. However, the role of the dileucine-based sorting motif within Nef in these interactions has been incompletely characterized. Here, yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that HIV-1 Nef interacted not only with the mu subunits of AP-1 and AP-2, but also with that of(More)
The HIV-1 Rev protein facilitates the nuclear export of mRNA containing the Rev response element (RRE) through binding to the export receptor CRM-1. Here we show that a cellular nuclear protein, Sam68 (Src-associated protein in mitosis), specifically interacts with RRE and can partially substitute for as well as synergize with Rev in RRE-mediated gene(More)
The constitutive transport element (CTE) of type D retroviruses mediates the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts. We previously showed that RNA helicase A functionally interacts with CTE and contains a bidirectional nuclear transport domain at the carboxyl terminus. Here we report the identification of a novel human protein, helicase A-binding(More)
Retroviruses must bypass the tight coupling of splicing and nuclear export of mRNA in their replication cycle because unspliced genomic RNA and incompletely spliced mRNA must be exported to the cytoplasm for packaging or translation. This process is mediated by a cis-acting constitutive transport element (CTE) for simple retroviruses and by the trans-acting(More)
Unlike cellular mRNA, retroviral mRNA bypasses the tight coupling of the splicing and nuclear export steps to allow the export of intron-containing viral RNA transcripts to the cytoplasm. Two distinct nuclear export pathways for retroviral mRNA have been described: a CRM-1 dependent pathway mediated by the HIV-1 Rev protein and the Rev Response Element(More)
The human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is associated with adult T cell leukemia and neurological disorders (TSP/HAM). The HTLV transcriptional transactivator, Tax, is known to exert its effect through protein-protein interaction with several transcription factors that activate genes in T cell proliferation. The pathogenic mechanism in the CNS is less(More)
The Tax protein of the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV) activates the expression of viral mRNA through a three 21 bp repeat enhancer located within the HTLV-1 LTR. Since Tax does not bind to the 21 bp DNA repeats directly, it has been speculated that Tax interacts with cellular protein(s) which mediate binding to the enhancer. We employed the yeast two(More)
We have previously demonstrated that overexpression of Sam68 functionally substitutes for, as well as synergizes with, HIV-1 Rev in RRE-mediated gene expression and virus replication. In addition, C-terminal deletion mutants of Sam68 exhibit a transdominant negative phenotype in HIV replication. We now report that Sam68 also enhances the activities of(More)
Virion infectivity factor (vif), a gene found in all lentiviruses, plays an essential role in virus replication in certain target cells. We examined the replication competence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) vif mutant in different T-cell lines and primary cells in comparison with that of the HIV-1 vif mutant. Both mutant viruses were(More)
The complex retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, type 1, employ a virally encoded protein, Rev, to mediate the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced mRNA. In contrast, the simian type D retroviruses act through a cis-acting constitutive transport element (CTE) that presumably interacts directly with cellular export proteins. We(More)